The history of blacks, humanities, and civilization began in Africa. Three major factors obscure this fact:
The vastness of the subject, Africa is a large continent that has been in constant flux. Also, until recently, African history was written solely by Europeans and from a European point of view.
The history is complicated by a predominance of oral history and the massive destruction of libraries and documents by the Europeans as Romans in 45 BC and by Christians in 389 AD.
Most important was the European conquest of Africa which attempted to attribute all important achievements to Caucasians.
Egyptian history is divided up into the old kingdom (dynasties 1 - 6) , middle kingdom (dynasties 11 - 14) and the empire (dynasties 18 - 20).
I 2920-2770BC Menes
II 2770-2650BC Ninetjer
III 2650-2575BC Zoser
IV 2575-2467BC Cheops
V 2465-2323BC Shepseskare
VI 2323-2152BC Teti
VII 2150-2135BC Neferkaure
VIII 2150-2135BC Imhotep
IX 2135-1986BC Kheti
X 2135-1986BC Merikare
XI 2074-1937BC Montuhotep II
XII 1937-1759BC Amenemhet I
XIII 1783-1641BC Sobekhotep IV
XIV 1668-1570BC Sankhibre
XV 1668-1570BC Khamudi
XVI 1668-1570BC Aahotepre
XVII 1668-1570BC DjehutiAmenhotep III
XVIII 1539-1295BC Amenhotep IIIRamses II
XIX 1295-1186BC Ramesses IIPiankhy
XX 1186-1069BC Setakhi Ahmose II
Egypt was the cradle of civilization for 10,000 years until conquered by the Persians in 525 BC, then the Macedonians under Alexander The Great in 333 BC. The Romans under Julius Caesar in 50 BC, the Arabs in 800 AD the Turks in the l6th century and the French with Napoleon, and the English in the 18th century.
The Grimaldi, A Negro race, live in Europe as late as 12,000 years ago. Two complete Grimaldi skeletons are in the Museum of Monaco, near Monte Carlo. Abundant traces of their culture have been unearthed in Southern and Central Europe.
The oldest known representation of the human body is that of a Negro woman it was carved by a Negro sculptor of Grimaldi race from 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. It is called "The Venus of Willendorf" after the place in Austria where it was found, and is in the Vienna Museum.
3MIL BC An upright-walking australopithecine ape-man appears on the earth in the late Pliocene period and has thumb-opposed hands in place of forefeet, permitting him and his female counterpart to use tools. (Fossil remains found by Carl Johanson in Ethiopias Awash Valley, A.D. 1974; further finds in A.D. 1975.)
1MIL BC Australopithecine ape-man becomes extinct as the human species becomes more developed. Homo erectus erectus is unique among primates in having a high proportion of meat relative to plant foods in his diet, but like other primates he is omnivorous, a scavenger who competes with hyenas and other scavengers while eluding leopards
13,000BC The oldest known representation of the human body is that of a Negro woman it was carved by a Negro sculptor of Grimaldi race. It is called "The Venus of Willendorf" after the place in Austria where it was found, and is in the Vienna Museum.
12,000BC The Grimaldi, a Negro race, lived in Europe. Two complete Grimaldi skeletons are in the Museum of Monaco, near Monte Carlo. Abundant traces of their culture have been unearthed in Southern and Central Europe
9000BC The New Stone Age begins in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
6500BC The wheel will be invented sometime in the next 2 centuries by Sumerians in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and will radically change transportation, travel, warfare, and industry. Other parts of the world, including the Western Hemisphere, will never develop the wheel on their own and will not enjoy its benefits until it is introduced by foreigners. The wheel will not only speed transportation but will also facilitate construction and will lead to many technological advances.
6280BC The Emperor Haile Selassi I, ruler of Ethiopia traced his ancestry to King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba beyond to that of Cush. Making that lineage the most ancient in the world, older than that of King George VIs by 6130 years.
5000 BC The oldest and most noted statue in the world was erected. It bears the face of a Negro. It is the Sphinx of Gizeh, which was worshipped as Horus, or Harmachis, The Sun-God of Light and Life.
Domesticated cattle are common in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and villagers often cooperate to build primitive irrigation canals and ditches.
Lands bordering the Nile River begin to dry out. The Egyptians build dikes and canals for irrigation and start to develop a civilization in North Africa.
4241BC Egypt invented the first calendar in 4241 BC.
3730 BC Cheops, a Negro, built the Great Pyramid, one of the Seven Wonders of thc Ancient World. It is 451 feet high, has 2,500,000 blocks of granite, each two and a half tons, covers 13 acres, took 100,000 men thirty years to build.
3200BC The Origin of Civilized Egypt (or Kemit: The Land of the Blacks) is generally accepted as beginning in 3200 BC when Menes, a black African, united upper (southern) and lower (northern) Egypt. He was the first pharaoh of Egypt and he came from upper Egypt.
NARMER, THE FOUNDER OF DYNASTIC KEMET (3200 B.C.), Narmer or Aha was called Menes by the Greeks. Regarded as the founder of Dynastic Kemet, he led an army from Upper Kemet in the south to conquer Lower Kemet in the north around 3200BC. Upon victory Narmer united Upper and Lower Kemet into one nation after which thirty dynasties would follow. It was at this time that hieroglyphic writing or any type of writing in the world for that matter, made its first appearance, in the tombs and treasures of the pharaohs. One of Narmer's first tasks was to build a city on his newly conquered lands. Here he was met with a difficult task as the Delta region was covered by an immense swamp. To remedy this situation, Narmer drained the swamp by actually diverting the course of the Nile River. Upon this new land he built a city which he named Men-Nefer: The Good Place. This city served as the capital of Kemet for several centuries. An Arab traveler writing as late as the Middle Ages reported the city "stretching a day's journey in every direction." The Greeks would rename Men-Nefer "Memphis," a name that even today honors an African king who lived nearly 5,000 years ago.
2980BC Egypts 3rd Dynasty is founded by Zoser (Tosorthros), who will rule for 30 years with help from his counselor-physician Imhotep
2900BC Elam, a mighty Negro civilization of Persia, flourished. It is perhaps older than Egypt or Ethiopia. One of its later Negro Kings, Kudar Nakunta, conquered Chaldea and Babylon and brought back to his Capital, Susa, rich treasures among which was the famous status of the goddess, Nana. Later it became the capital of Cyrus the Great and Darius. Susa is the Shushan of the Bible, where Esther, the Jewess, sought the favor of King Ahaserus of Persia and Ethiopia.
Egypts 4th Dynasty is founded by Cheops (Khufu), who will reign for 23 years. (Dates for all early rulers are approximate and controversial.)
2850BC Khafra (Khafre, or Chephren) rules as the third Egyptian king of the 4th Dynasty.
Imhotep of Ancient Egypt, was the real Father of Medicine. Greece and Rome had their knowledge of medicine from him. In Rome he was worshipped as the Prince of Peace in the form of a black man. His Ethiopian portraits show him a Negro. Imhotep was also Prime Minister to King Zoser as well as the foremost architect of his time. The saying. "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we die," has been traced to him Hippocrates, the so-called "Father of Medicine" lived 2,000 years after Imhotep.
IMHOTEP, THE WORLD FIRST KNOWN GENIUS, Imhotep was the royal advisor to King Zoser during the Third Dynasty of Kemet. Regarded as the world's first recorded multi-genius, Imhotep was an architect, astronomer, philosopher, poet and physician. As an architect he was responsible for designing the Step Pyramid and the Saqqara Complex. During his lifetime he was given a host of titles, among them: Chancellor of the King of Lower Kemet, the First after the King of Upper Kemet, High Priest of Heliopolis and Administrator of the Great Palace. As a physician, Imhotep is believed to have been the author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus in which more than 90 anatomical terms and 48 injuries are described. This is well over 2,200 years before the Western Father of Medicine Hippocrates is born. Some 2,000 years after his death, Imhotep was deified by the inhabitants of Kemet and was known later as Asclepius, God of Medicine, to the Greeks. His very name, Imhotep, translates as the Prince of Peace. His tomb near Memphis became a sacred place and the site of pilgrimages for those seeking a cure. As a philosopher and poet, Imhotep's most remembered phrase is: "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we shall die." There still remain many bronze statuettes, temples and sanatoria bearing his name, as is depicted in the picture of the statue above.
2251BC KHUFU, The Father Of Pyramid Building (2551-2528 B.C) King Khufu, who is also known by the Greek name "Cheops," was the father of pyramid building at Giza. He ruled from 2551 - 2528 B.C. and was the son of King Sneferu and Queen Hetpeheres. Dates Built: c. 2589-2566 B.C. Total Blocks of Stone: over 2,300,000 Base: 13 square acres, 568,500 square feet, or 7 city blocks. The length of each side of the base was originally 754 feet (230 m), but is now 745 feet (227 m) due to the loss of the outer casing stones. Total Weight: 6.5 million tons. Average Weight of Individual Blocks of Stone: 2.5 tons, the large blocks used for the ceiling of the King's Chamber weigh as much as 9 tons. Height: Originally 481 feet (146.5 m) tall, Khufu is now, 449 feet tall as the top stones have since fallen off or been removed. Until early in this century, this pyramid was the tallest building on earth. Angle of Incline: 51 degrees 50' 35" Construction Material: limestone, granite.
2150BC Ancient Egypt The worlds first known genius. Imhotep invents the stethoscope. Architect, astronomer, philosopher, poet, linguist and physician.
1970BC Egypts Amenemhet I dies after a 30-year reign that has founded the 12th Dynasty. He is succeeded by his son who has served as co-regent since 1980 B.C. and who will reign alone until 1935 B.C. as Sesostris. The new ruler will complete the conquest of Nubia.
1935BC Egypts Sesostris I dies and is succeeded by his son, who has served as co-regent since 1938 B.C. and will reign alone until 1903 B.C. as Amenemhet II. The new king will increase trade with Punt.
1897BC SENWORSERT I, PHARAOH OF THE 12TH DYNASTY, Senwosert I was a Twelfth Dynasty King of Kemet (1897BC). Also known as Kepre Kare Senwosert I, he was known to the Greeks as Kekrops and Sesostris. Interestingly enough Herodotus, Greece's Father of History, reported that Greece had once been conquered by a king named Sesostris. Greek mythology also indicated that the legendary founder of Athens was an Egyptian named Kekrops.
1887BC Egypts Sesostris II dies after a 16-year reign. He is succeeded by his son, who will reign until 1849 B.C. as Sesostris III, making Egypt a great power holding sway over 1,000 miles along the Nile
1849BC Egypts Sesostris III dies after a 38-year reign in which he has invaded Judah and Syria to maintain Egyptian trade routes. He is succeeded by his son, who will reign until 1801 B.C. as Amenemhet III, developing mines in the Sinai region to keep the nation prosperous
1801BC Egypts Amenemhet III dies and is succeeded by his son, who will reign until 1792 B.C. as Amenemhet IV
1792BC Egypts 12th (Theban) Dynasty ends with the death of Amenemhet IV after 208 years, and the power of the Egyptian king declines.
1750BC There were at least eighteen Ethiopian Negro rulers of Ancient Egypt, the best known of which is Piankhi. Leaving his country in Central Africa, Piankhi conquered all Egypt to the mouth of the Nile.
1700BC An Egyptian papyrus written during the reign of Re-Ser-Ka shows that Egyptians suffer from tooth decay and ophthalmic troubles. A German Egyptologist will discover the document in A.D. 1872, and it will be called the Ebers papyrus.
1545BC Egypts Amasis I dies after a 23-year reign. His son will reign until 1525 B.C. as Amenhotep I, invading Nubia and warring with the Libyans and Syrians.
1525BC Egypts Amenhotep I dies after a 20-year reign that has secured the nations borders. His successor, who is not of royal blood, will reign until 1504 B.C. as Thutmose I, conquering Nubia.
1503BC HATSHEPSUT, QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the blacks) (1503-1482 B.C.) One of the greatest queens of ancient Kemet was Queen Hatshepsut. While she was known as a "warrior" queen, her battles were engaged with her own rivals for the position of power in Kemetic hierarchy. A born dynast in her own right, Hatshepsut proved to be an aggressive and overpowering force. However, it was not in war, but in her aspiration to ascend to the "Heru (Horus) consciousness," she displayed the strength that has given her a place in history. She adopted the Truth of Maat and became involved in the elimination of undesirable people and elements from Kemet. Determined to be revered in times yet to come, Hatshepsut depicted herself in as many masculine attributes as possible, i.e. male attire, kings beard, etc. Although she ascended to the throne upon the death of her king-brother Thutmose II, she exerted her rightful claim to the throne. In exercising her power, she involved herself in foreign campaigns, a concentration on domestic affairs, extensive building and commercial ventures. The most famous of her commercial ventures was the Punt expedition in which goods and produce were acquired from the rich market there to be brought back to Kemet. While it would appear that her opponents were not antagonistic regarding her sex, they were so regarding her non-aggressive philosophy. Even before becoming legal ruler, Hatshepsut, was actively pushing things dearest to the hearts of all Africans leaders: the expansion of foreign trade, international diplomatic relations, perfection of national defense, vast public building programs, securing the South and the North through either peace or war and, one of her "pet projects", building a great navy for both commerce and war. Her success on most of these fronts made her one of the giants of the race.
1504BC THUTMOSE III, PHARAOH OF KEMET, (1504-1450 B.C.) Thutmose III was a member of one of the greatest families in the history of royalty anywhere in the world, the 18th Dynasty of Kemet (Ancient Egypt). He is credited with strengthened the sovereignty of Kemet and extended its influence into Western Asia.
1483BC Thutmose III comes of age and begins a 33-year reign in which Egypt will reach the height of her power, extending hegemony from below the fourth cataract of the Nile in the south to the Euphrates in the east. The title "pharaoh," or "Great House," will come into use under Thutmose III.
1450BC Egypts Thutmose III dies after a splendid 33-year reign. His son, who has ruled jointly for the past year, will remain until 1424 B.C. as Amenhotep II with successful campaigns in Judea and on the Euphrates.
1417 BC Egypts Thutmose IV dies and is succeeded by his brilliant son, who will reign in luxury and peace until 1379 as Amenhotep III, the last great ruler of the New Kingdom.
1415BC TIYE, THE NUBIAN QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt) (1415-1340 B.C.), Black, beautiful and gorgeous, Queen Tiye is regarded as one of the most influential Queens ever to rule Kemet. A princess of Nubian birth, she married the Kemetan King Amenhotep III who ruled during the New Kingdom Dynasties around 1391BC. Queen Tiye held the title of "Great Royal Wife" and acted upon it following the end of her husband's reign. It was Tiye who held sway over Kemet during the reign of her three sons Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton), Smenkhare, and the famous child king Tut-ankh-amen. For nearly half of a century, Tiye governed Kemet, regulated her trade, and protected her borders. During this time, she was believed to be the standard of beauty in the ancient world.
1379BC Egypts Amenhotep III dies after a 38-year reign in which Babylonia has recognized Egyptian supremacy. The pharaoh has led a successful expedition into Upper Nubia above the second cataract of the Nile, developed his capital of Thebes into a monumental city of great temples, pylons, and colossi, erected hypostyle halls at Karnak, built the Temple of Amun in Luxor, and reigned in an era of prosperity and magnificence. Amenhotep is succeeded by his son, who will reign until 1362 B.C. as Amenhotep IV (Ikhnaton), but the Hittite king Suppiluliumas will take advantage of Egypts weakness in the next 35 years to build an empire that will extend south from Anatolia to the borders of Lebanon.
1350BC The Egyptian throne is seized by the soldier Harmhab, who will reorganize the countrys administration and reign until 1315 B.C., founding Egypts 19th Dynasty.
1300BC Psalms, that read like those of the Bible, were written by a Pharaoh. Amenophis IV, better known as "Akhenaton, the Heretic King," 400 years or more before David was born. Akhenaton. who was the father of Tut-Ankh-Amen, was extremely Negro in type. He is called "the most remarkable of the Pharaohs." NEFERTITI, QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the blacks) It is believe by some historians that Nefertiti was the daughter of Aye and Tiy, while other claims her as the oldest daughter of Amenhotep III. Nefertiti was married to Akhenaten the originated of the one god concept(monotheism) as it became known today. During the early life of Nefertiti she lived in a Kemet where a new model of human nature in relation to god was emerging. This belief considered man primarily has a material entity, whose happiness was measured by his ability to acquire and maintain a material heaven(wealth and pleasure). In this material heaven women were not principals that predicted or participated in social policy, but were objects of sensuality or objects to be used by men. As weaker members of this paradise women could not be participants in its building. This belief was completely contrary to the beliefs of the ancients and the principles of Maat. Akhenaten developed another model. The nature of his new religion was that Aton represented by the Sun was the sole god and creator of all life. Nefertiti could not relegate herself to the traditional role of subservient-queen. She envisioned an active role for herself in reshaping civilization. This was later manifested as she is shown participating in all the religious ceremonies with Akhenaten. It was only through the combined royal pair that the god Aton's full blessing could be bestowed. Nefertiti is displayed with a prominence that other Egyptian queens were not. Her name is enclosed in a royal cartouche, and there are in fact more statues and drawings of her than of Akhenaten. Yet the priest with their materialist model were powerful and they dominated the higher government offices. In this arena women were incapable of divinity. Akhenaten and Nefertiti countered a revolt by the priest and emerged victorious and created a new capital for Kemet called Akhetaten a city that could give birth to their scared mission, a mission in pursuit of Divine life. She insisted on being portrayed has a equal divine partner to Akhenaten and their exist many illustrations of her riding a chariot with Akhenaten during major rituals. While Akhenaten's ideas waned without him their to defend them. The priest still considered Nefertiti's heresy a greater threat. The concept of a woman bypassing the male priest hood via a mother-goddess to worship the divine was totally unacceptable. And sadly enough continues to be unacceptable in the major religions that dominate the world today. Nefertiti though her devotion and her demand for respect proved she deserved a special place in the history of women.
TUTANKAMUN, BOY PHARAOH OF KEMET, Tutankhaten became Pharaoh after the death of Smenkhare, and became one of history's most famous royalty. Tutankhaten's story has since come out, and we know more about this boy-king than we do about any other person in the Kemartic period. Tutankhaten became Pharaoh at the age of nine . He married Ankhesenpaaten and ruled from Akhetaten. Four years after he became king, Tutankhaten moved his capital back to Memphis, and changed his name to Tutankamun, in honor of the God Amun. Tutankamun, ruled for nine years, until he was 18. The mummy discovered in the Valley of the Kings has an injury to the skull, and it is believed that Tutankamun was either the victim of an accident or he was assassinated. His tomb is one of very few that have been discovered almost untouched by thieves.
1292BC NEFERTARI, QUEEN OF KEMET (the land of the blacks) (1292-1225 B.C), Her marriage to the great Rameses II of lower Ancient Egypt is known as one of the greatest royal love affair ever. This marriage also brought an end to the hundred year war between upper and lower ancient Kemet (Egypt), which in essence unified both sections into one great Kemet which was the world leading country. Monuments of this love affair still remains today in the temples that Rameses built for his wife at Abu Simbel. The immense structures known as the two temples of Abu Simbel are among the most magnificent monuments in the world. Built during the New Kingdom nearly 3,000 years ago, it was hewn from the mountain which contains it as an everlasting dedication to King Ramses and his wife Nefertari. Superb reliefs on the temple detail the Battle of Kadesh, and Ramses and Nefertari consorting with the deities and performing religious rituals. The rays of the sun still penetrate to the Holy of Holies in the rock of the main temple on the same two days of the year: the 20th of October and the 20th of February. This timing is probably connected to the symbolic unification, via the rays of the sun, of the statue of Ra-Herakhty and the statue of Ramses II. Up to today these structures remains as the largest, most majestic structures ever built to honor a wife.
1295BC RAMSES II, THE GREAT, Ramses II (the Great) was one of the most prolific builders of ancient Egypt. Hardly a site exists that he did not initiate, add to, complete, or build entirely himself. Some of the greatest monuments on any tour of Egypt bear his stamp: Abu Simbel, Karnak and Luxor Temples, the Ramesseum, and many others. He also commissioned the largest monolithic statue ever, a seated statue of himself at the Ramesseum. Now lying in pieces, the giant red-granite statue inspired many.
1198BC Egypts 20th Dynasty entrenches itself as its second king begins a 31-year reign as Ramses III. He will rally the Egyptians against a confederation of Philistines, Sardinians, Greek Danaoi, and other sea peoples.
1085BC Egypt divided, dependent on Libyan mercenaries
960BC MAKEDA, QUEEN OF SHEBA (The symbol of Beauty) (960 B.C.) "I am black but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon, Look not upon me because I am black Because the sun hath scorched me." (Song of Solomon) Although most of Black history is suppressed, distorted or ignored by an ungrateful modern world, some African traditions are so persistent that all of the power and deception of the Western academic establishment have failed to stamp them out. One such story is that of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of Israel. Black women of antiquity were legendary for their beauty and power. Especially great were the Queens of Ethiopia. This nation was also known as Nubia, Kush, Axum and Sheba. One thousand years before Christ, Ethiopia was ruled by a line of virgin queens. The one whose story has survived into our time was known as Makeda, "the Queen of Sheba." Her remarkable tradition was recorded in the Kebar Nagast, or the Glory of Kings, and the Bible. The Bible tells us that, during his reign, King Solomon of Israel decided to build a magnificent temple. To announce this endeavor, the king sent forth messengers to various foreign countries to invite merchants from abroad to come to Jerusalem with their caravans so that they might engage in trade there. At this time, Ethiopia was second only to Egypt in power and fame. Hence, King Solomon was enthralled by Ethiopia's beautiful people, rich history, deep spiritual tradition and wealth. He was especially interested in engaging in commerce with one of Queen Makeda's subjects, an important merchant by the name of Tamrin.1 Solomon sent for Tamrin who "packed up stores of valuables including ebony, sapphires and red gold, which he took to Jerusalem to sell to the king."2 It turns out that Tamrin's visit was momentous. Although accustomed to the grandeur and luxury of Egypt and Ethiopia, Tamrin was still impressed by King Solomon and his young nation. During a prolonged stay in Israel, Tamrin observed the magnificent buildings and was intrigued by the Jewish people and their culture. But above all else, he was deeply moved by Solomon's wisdom and compassion for his subjects. Upon returning to his country, Tamrin poured forth elaborate details about his trip to Queen Makeda. She was so impressed by the exciting story that the great queen decided to visit King Solomon herself.3 To understand the significance of state visits in antiquity in contrast to those of today, we must completely remove ourselves from the present place and time. In ancient times, royal visits were very significant ceremonial affairs. The visiting regent was expected to favor the host with elaborate gifts and the state visit might well last for weeks or even months. Even by ancient standards, however, Queen Makeda's visit to King Solomon was extraordinary. In I Kings 10:1-2, the Bible tells us: "1. And when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard questions. "2. And she came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bear spices and very much gold, and precious stones. And when she was come to Solomon she communed with him of all that was in her heart." I Kings 10:10 adds: "She gave the king 120 talents of gold, and of spices very great store and precious stones; there came no more such abundance of spices as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon." We should pause to consider the staggering sight of this beautiful Black woman and her vast array of resplendent attendants travelling over the Sahara desert into Israel with more than 797 camels plus donkeys and mules too numerous to count. The value of the gold alone, which she gave to King Solomon, would be $3,690,000 today and was of much greater worth in antiquity. King Solomon, and undoubtedly the Jewish people, were flabbergasted by this great woman and her people. He took great pains to accommodate her every need. A special apartment was built for her lodging while she remained in his country. She was also provided with the best of food and eleven changes of garments daily. As so many African leaders before her, this young maiden, though impressed with the beauty of Solomon's temple and his thriving domain, had come to Israel seeking wisdom and the truth about the God of the Jewish people. Responding to her quest for knowledge, Solomon had a throne set up for the queen beside his. "It was covered with silken carpets, adorned with fringes of gold and silver, and studded with diamonds and pearls. From this she listened while he delivered judgments."4 Queen Makeda also accompanied Solomon throughout his kingdom. She observed the wise, compassionate and spiritual ruler as he interacted with his subjects in everyday affairs. Speaking of the value of her visit with the King and her administration for him, Queen Makeda stated: "My Lord, how happy I am. Would that I could remain here always, if but as the humblest of your workers, so that I could always hear your words and obey you.
"How happy I am when I interrogate you! How happy when you answer me. My whole being is moved with pleasure; my soul is filled; my feet no longer stumble; I thrill with delight. "Your wisdom and goodness," she continued, "are beyond all measure. They are excellence itself. Under your influence I am placing new values on life. I see light in the darkness; the firefly in the garden reveals itself in newer beauty. I discover added lustre in the pearl; a greater radiance in the morning star, and a softer harmony in the moonlight. Blessed be the God that brought me here; blessed be He who permitted your majestic mind to be revealed to me; blessed be the One who brought me into your house to hear your voice.
Solomon had a harem of over 700 wives and concubines, yet, he was enamored by the young Black virgin from Ethiopia. Although he held elaborate banquets in her honor and wined, dined and otherwise entertained her during the length of her visit, they both knew that, according to Ethiopian tradition, the Queen must remain chaste. Nevertheless, the Jewish monarch wished to plant his seed in Makeda, so that he might have a son from her regal African lineage. To this end the shrewd king conspired to conquer the affection of this young queen with whom he had fallen in love. When, after six months in Israel, Queen Makeda announced to King Solomon that she was ready to return to Ethiopia, he invited her to a magnificent farewell dinner at his palace. The meal lasted for several hours and featured hot, spicy foods that were certain to make all who ate thirsty and sleepy (as King Solomon had planned.) Since the meal ended very late, the king invited Queen Makeda to stay overnight in the palace in his quarters. She agreed as long as they would sleep in separate beds and the king would not seek to take advantage of her. He vowed to honor her chastity, but also requested that she not take anything in the palace. Outraged by such a suggestion, the Queen protested that she was not a thief and then promised as requested. Not long after the encounter, the Queen, dying of thirst, searched the palace for water. Once she found a large water jar and proceeded to drink, the King startled her by stating: "You have broken your oath that you would not take anything by force that is in my palace. The Queen protested, of course, that surely the promise did not cover something so insignificant and plentiful as water, but Solomon argued that there was nothing in the world more valuable than water, for without it nothing could live. Makeda reluctantly admitted the truth of this and apologized for her mistake, begging for water for her parched throat. Solomon, now released from his promise, assuaged her thirst and his own, immediately taking the Queen as his lover."6 The following day as the Queen and her entourage prepared to leave Israel, the King placed a ring on her hand and stated, "If you have a son, give this to him and send him to me." After returning to the land of Sheba, Queen Makeda did indeed have a son, whom she named Son-of-the-wise-man, and reared as a prince and her heir apparent to the throne. Upon reaching adulthood, the young man wished to visit his father, so the Queen prepared another entourage, this time headed by Tamrin. She sent a message to Solomon to anoint their son as king of Ethiopia and to mandate that thenceforth only the males descended from their son should rule Sheba. Solomon and the Jewish people rejoiced when his son arrived in Israel. The king anointed him as the Queen had requested and renamed him Menelik, meaning "how handsome he is." Though Solomon had many wives, only one had produced a son, Rehoboam, a boy of seven. So the king begged Menelik to remain, but the young prince would not. Solomon therefore called his leaders and nobles and announced that, since he was sending his first born son back to Ethiopia, he wanted all of them to send their firstborn sons "to be his counselors and officers." And they agreed to do so. Menelik asked his father for a relic of the Ark of the Covenant to take back with him to the land of Sheba. It is said that while Solomon intended to provide his son with a relic, the sons of the counselors, angry at having to leave their homes and go to Sheba with Menelik, actually stole the real Ark and took it to Ethiopia. Menelik returned to Sheba and, according to tradition, ruled wisely and well. And his famous line has continued down to the 20th century when, even now, the ruler of Ethiopia is the "conquering lion of Judah" descended directly from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Written by Legrand H. Clegg II
800 BC Invasion of Palestine
710 BC TAHARKA, King Of Nubia (710-664 B. C.), Taharka is probably one of the most famous rulers of Napatan Kush. He was 32 when he became king and was heir to a kingdom that included not only Kush but KMT(Kemet) as well. He is said to have commanded military campaigns in Western Asia as far away as Palestine and led expeditions all the way to Spain. Mention of his great campaigns can be found in the Bible (Isaiah 37:9, 2 Kings 19:9). During his reign, Taharka controlled the largest empire in Ancient Africa. He was able to initiate a building program throughout his empire which was overwhelming in scope. The numbers and majesty of his building projects were legendary, with the greatest being the temple at Gebel Barkal in the Sudan. The temple was carved from the living rock and decorated with images of Taharka over 100 feet high.
700 BC Ethiopian Negroes gave to the world the first idea of right and wrong and thus laid the basis of religion. The earliest exposition of this yet found is in the so-called Memphite Drama, which is known only through a copy on a slab of basalt made by order of an Ethiopian King in 700 B. C. Ethiopians, thus are the originators of all true culture and civilization.
656 BC Assyrian invasion.
652: BC Independence from Assyrians
525 BC Persians conquer Egypt Persia Chronology
398 BC Persians expelled with Greek aid
341 BC Last native pharaohs; re-conquest by Persia
332BC CANDACE, EMPRESS OF ETHIOPIA (332 B.C.) Alexander reached Kemet (Ancient Egypt) in 332 B.C., on his world conquering rampage. But one of the greatest generals of the ancient world was also the Empress of Ethiopia. This formidable black Queen Candace, was world famous as a military tactician and field commander. Legend has it that Alexander could not entertain even the possibility of having his world fame and unbroken chain of victories marred by risking a defeat, at last, by a woman. He halted his armies at the borders of Ethiopia and did not invade to meet the waiting black armies with their Queen in personal command.
323 BC Beginning of Ptolemaic Dynasty; Egypt is ruled by Greeks. 323 BC: Beginning of Ptolemaic Dynasty; Egypt is ruled by Greeks
218BC The great military leader, Hannibal, crossed the Alps with an Army and elephants to conquer northern Italy. November 15, Hannibal, a full-blooded Negro, marching through conquered territory in Spain and France, performed the astounding feat of crossing the Alps with 26,000 of his original force of 82,000 men he defeated Rome, the mightiest military power of that age, who had a million men, in every battle for the next fifteen years Hannibal is the father of military strategy. His tactics are still taught in the leading military academies of the United States, England, France, Germany, and other lands.
243BC HANNIBAL, RULER OF CARTHAGE (247-183 B.C.) Hannibal is well known as the greatest general and military strategist who ever lived. He used his overpowering African armies to conquer major portions of Spain and Italy and came very close to defeating the Roman Empire. His audacious moves-such as marching his army with African War elephants through the treacherous Alps to surprise and conquer northern Italy and his tactical genius, as illustrated by the battle of Cannae where his seemingly trapped army cleverly surrounded and destroy a much larger Roman force, won him recognition which has spanned more than 2000 years. His tactics are still being studied in many military schools today.
202BC Massinissa, a black warrior, helped Rome defeat Hannibal at Zama.
69BC CLEOPATRA VII, QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the blacks) (69-30 B.C) Although known to be of African descent she is still deliberately portrayed as being white. She came to power at the tender age of seventeen and the most popular of seven queens to have had this name. She was also known to be a great linguist and was instrumental in making Kemet (Egypt) into the world number one super power at that time.
218BC The great military leader, Hannibal, crossed the Alps with an Army and elephants to conquer northern Italy.
60BC Persina, a Queen of Ethiopia, presented her husband, Hydaspes, with a light-colored child. "which color is strange among Ethiopians." She declared that it was due to the presence of a white statue in the room at the time of conception.
30 BC Egypt is conquered by the Romans See Roman Republic Chronology
90 AD Tacitus, Roman historian, says that the Romans of his day popularly believed that the Jews, which then abounded in Europe, came from Ethiopia, the land of the Blacks. The characters of the Bible are largely Negroes. The Jews were slaves to the Egyptians for nearly 430 years. Only seventy Jews went to Egypt with Jacob. The Bible says that 600,000 men left with Moses, which according to Haushoffer, meant a total of 3,154,000 with women and children. For this large number to have left mixing with the Egyptians, who were black, must have taken place on a vast scale. About 12,000,000 Negroes were brought to the New World. Imagine how much of their original color and culture the latter would take with them should they "return" to Africa, and you realize how much of the original Jew remained in only those seventy Jews after four centuries.
189 AD African Pope of Rome: Victor (189-199 A. D.)
287 AD The celestial saint of Germany is St. Maurice, a pure Negro. While in command of a Roman legion in Gaul (Switzerland). in 287A. D., he refused to attack the Christians when ordered to do so by the Emperor Maximian Herculius, for which he was killed. His picture is in many German cathedrals and museums sometimes with the German eagle on his head.
300AD Ghana emerged as the Great States in Africa. Power peaked in 1100 and split into smaller states in its decline in 1240. YAA ASANTEWA, Yaa Asantewa of the Ashanti Empire, Her fight against British colonialists is a story that is woven throughout the history of Ghana. One evening the chiefs held a secret meeting at Kumasi. Yaa Asantewa, the Queen Mother of Ejisu, was at the meeting. The chiefs were discussing how they should make war on the white men and force them to bring back the Asantehene. Yaa Asantewa noticed that some of the chiefs were afraid. Some said that there should be no war. They should rather go to beg the Governor to bring back the Asantehene King Prempeh. Then suddenly Yaa Asantewa stood up and spoke. This was what she said: "Now I have seen that some of you fear to go forward to fight for our king. If it were in the brave days of, the days of Osei Tutu, Okomfo Anokye, and Opolu Ware, chiefs would not sit down to see thief king taken away without firing a shot. No white man could have dared to speak to chief of the Ashanti in the way the Governor spoke to you chiefs this morning. Is it true that the bravery of the Ashanti is no more? I cannot believe it. It cannot be! I must say this, if you the men of Ashanti will not go forward, then we will. We the women will. I shall call upon my fellow women. We will fight the white men. We will fight till the last of us falls in the battlefields." This speech stirred up the men who took an oath to fight the white men until they released the Asantehene. For months the Ashantis led by Yaa Asantewa fought very bravely and kept the white men in the fort. Yet British reinforcements totaling 1,400 soldiers arrived at Kumasi. Yaa Asantewa and other leaders were captured and sent into exile. Yaa Asantewa's war was the last of the major war in Africa led by a women.
311AD African Pope of Rome, Meichaides (311 -312); It was Meichaides who led Christianity to final triumph against the Roman Empire.
320AD Libyan born, Sextus Julius Africanus, was early Christian historian and traveler known for dating the Creation in the Chronographiae. Set at 5499 B.C. His estimates were adopted by most of the Eastern churches. Only fragments of the Chronographiae are extant.
496AD African Popes of Rome:, St. Gelasius (496 A. D.).
500 The Moors were an African people who helped to pull Europe and particularly Spain out of the Dark Ages (500 1000 AD) The Moors conquered and began civilizing Spain in 711 AD when Tarikh (a Moorish) general defeated King Rederick of Spain. When the Moors first came into Spain in the 8th century, Europe was 99% illiterate. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the Moors gave Spain over 70 libraries, 17 universities, and established an astronomical observatory at Seville, Spain. At this time, the rest of Europe had no public libraries and only 2 significant universities.
569 The first World War in history. was started by Abraha, Negro emperor and ex-slave, when he attacked Mecca. Arabia. This war lasted for more than a thousand years and stretched from France to beyond China. It brought about the fall of several great empires, one of them the Later Roman Empire, capital Constantinople in 1453 A. D.
700 Africans did not first come to America on slave ships but on their own ships as early as 700 BC. These Africans landed on the shores of what is now Central America and Mexico carried from the African coast to the Gulf of Mexico by the north and south equatorial currents. The most extraordinary monuments of the Olmec civilization are 11 colossal stone Africanoid (Negroid) heads, each over 9ft. tall and weighing 15 tons. The stone heads were unearthed in southwest Mexico in 1938.
705 DAHIA-AL KAHINA, QUEEN KAHINA. She fought against the Arab incursion in North Africa where under her leadership Africans fought back fiercely and drove the Arab army northward into Tripolitania. Queen Kahina was of the Hebrew faith and she never abandoned her religion. Her opposition to the Arab incursion was purely nationalistic, since she favored neither Christians nor Moslems. Her death in 705 A.D by Hassen-ben-Numam ended one of the most violet attempts to save Africa for the Africans. She prevented Islam's southward spread into the Western Sudan. After her death the Arabs began to change their strategy in advancing their faith and their power in Africa. The resistance to the southward spread of Islam was so great in some areas that some of the wives of African kings committed suicide to avoid falling into the hands of the Berbers and Arabs who showed no mercy to the people who would not be converted to Islam.
711 Tarikh was the name of the African Muslim who captured Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar, the symbol of stability, is named after a Negro ex-slave. It is a corruption of "Gebal-Tarik," or "The Mountain of Tarik." Tarik, who was a Moor, captured the Rock which was then called Calpe, in-711 A. D. after he conquered Southern Spain. Tariks countrymen thereafter ruled Spain for 700 years.
800 Arabians conquer Egypt.
937 The Falashas, or Negro Jews of Ethiopia, led by Queen Judith, put the line of So1omon and the Queen of Sheba off the throne of Ethiopia in 937 A. D., and ruled for forty years. The Falashas assert that they are the original Jews. They call themselves "The Beta-Israel." or The Chosen People."
1037 TENKAMENIN, KING OF GHANA (1037-1075), The country of Ghana reach the height of its greatness during the reign of Tenkamenin. Through his careful management of the gold trade across the Sahara desert into West Africa, Tenkamenin's empire flourished economically. But his greatest strength was in government. Each day he would ride out on horseback and listen to the problems and concerns of his people. He insisted that no one be denied an audience and that they be allowed to remain in his presence until satisfied that justice had been done. His principles of democratic monarchy and religious tolerance make Tenkamenin's reign one of the great models of African rule.
1086 Yusuf, a king from Upper Senegal. Africa, saved Moorish civilization in Spain. The Moors were being pushed out by the white Christians of Germanic descent. Yusuf crossed the Strait of Gibraltar with only 15,000 men, most at them pure blacks, and with 10,000 more from the Moors met the white king. Alphonso VI, at Zalacca. The latter had an army of 70,000, nearly three times as great, but Yusuf inflicted a terrible defeat on him. The flower of white knighthood was destroyed in that battle. Among those who fell later before the military prowess of Yusuf was Roderigo Diaz de Bivar, as "The Cid," and the greatest figure of the heroic age of Spain.
1240 Mandinka King Sundiata's victory in the battle of Kirini is considered the beginning of The Malian Empire.
1300 Africans are also believed to have come to Meso-America from the Mali empire in 1310. Mali emperor Abubakari sent a fleet of 400 ships into the Atlantic ocean toward America. Only one ship returned but did not know the fate of the others. In 1311, Abubakari himself led a voyage of 2000 ships toward America leaving his brother Mansa Musa over Mali. Abubakari never returned.
1306 MANSA KANKAN MUSSA, KING OF MALI (1306-1332) A scholar, a great economists and a true man of the arts, Mansa Mussa is well known for the impact he created with his flamboyant style. In 1324 he led his people on the Hadj, a holy pilgrimage from Timbuktu to Mecca. His caravan consisted of 72 000 people whom he led safely across the Sahara Desert and back, a total distance of 6,496 miles. So spectacular was this event that Mansa Mussa gained the respect of scholars and traders throughout the world. Also during his reign, Mali was one of the most prestigious and wealthiest empires in the world. This empire at this time also contain one of the worlds most prestigious university in Timbuktu.
1312 Mansa Musa, illustrious ruler of Mali, he built Mali into one of the world's largest empires. is best known for his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324. He took 6,000 people and 80 camels of gold to finance the trip. He gave away so much gold while traveling through Egypt that he depressed the price of gold which affected Egypt's economy for 12 years.
1375 AKHENATON, The Creator of Monotheism, (1375-1358 B.C), Akhenaton was the first ruler in recorded history to believe in the concept of One God. He also taught this concept to all his citizens. He built a new city in the desert that was dedicated to religion, art and music. This new city, Akhenaton (now Tell El Amara), with its lush gardens and magnificent buildings is where Akhenaton and his wife Queen Nefertiti changed Kemet's culture so radically that their influence is felt for centuries right up until today. Akhenaton was also the first Pharaoh of whom a true likeness is recorded as shown in the picture to the left.
1400 All great African societies eventually declined The conquest and colonization of Africa which took over 400 years (1400-1800). Africa was partitioned into European colonies. Europe began to develop a superior technology base in the 1500's which lead to a monopoly of the gun. Europe also developed ship fleets and developed the capability to mass produce. Europe refused to share its borrowed and developed technology with Africa which lead to technological arrest in Africa. The slave trade deprived Africa of development and made security a priority over development. African societies lost their culture because of European conquest.
1403 Aben Ali, an African Negro, was private physician to Charles VII. King of France (1403-1465). When the king fell dangerously ill at Toulouse, Aben Ali was sent for and he cured him. Thereafter the king made him a member of his suite.
1440 MUTATO, The Great Mutota (1440), The year was 1440. The King was Mutota. In any other European country he would have been known as Mutota the Great. He and his council was quick to see that even the most advance states each standing independently and alone, were doomed to European criminal exploits unless unified into a single nation with a strong central government. This also should be achieve through voluntary association if possible. Mutota and the new leaders understood this very well. Therefore, Mutota, in 1440, began the campaign to carry out his grand design. This was a great plan aimed at nothing less than uniting Africans into a vast empire that cut across South Africa below the Limpopo river, and covered Zimbabwe with an indefinite boundary beyond the Zambezi River in Zambia, and on over Mozambique to the Indian Ocean, sweeping southward again to re-posses the entire coastline fronting the New Empire. This area contained the majority of the world precious metals such as gold, copper, tin and iron held in over 4000 mines. After 30 years of struggle, unity was finally achieve in 1480 into the Empire of Monomotapa.
1442 First African slave brought to Lisbon, Portugal.
1460 The Negroes of Seville, Spain, had been wearing in the religious procession on the feast of Corpus Christi, which originated 428 years earlier, a white robe and hood, strikingly like that used by the Ku Klux Klan.
1468 Mali began to decline which gave rise to Songhai which became the largest and greatest African Sudanic civilization. Muhammad Toure was the most illustrious emperor of Songhai as he built the largest empire in the history of west and central Africa. His territory of rule was larger than all of Europe. Toure was a great supporter of intellectual achievements, as many universities and schools were founded at Gaojent and Timbuktu. The universities taught philosophy, medicine, law, astronomy, math, literature, ethnography, art, and poetry. Scholars from Asia, Africa, and Europe attended the universities. The Songhai empire came to an end in 1591 when it became divided after war with an army of Spanish Christians.
1492 Pedro Alonzo Nino, said by many scholars to have been a Negro, arrived with Columbus as one of his pilots. Oct.12
1493 ASKIA TOURE, KING OF SONGHAY (1493-1529), Askia Toure united the entire central region of the Western Sudan, and established a governmental machine that is still revered today for its detail and efficiency. He divided his country into provinces, each with a professional administrator as governor, and ruled each fairly and uniformly through a staff of distinguished legal experts and judges.
1500 But as late as 1500 the Ethiopians depicted their gods and heroes black, and their devils and villains, white. Father Fernandez, a Catholic missionary, who worked amongst them at this time, says, "They paint Christ, the Blessed Virgin. And other saints in black form; and devils and wicked men white. Thus Christ and his apostles are black and Judas, white. Annas, Caiphas, Pilate, Herod and the Jews are white, while Michael is black, and the Devil, white."
The most ancient names for so-called black people are Nehesu, or Nubian; Ethiopian., and Moor from Ancient Egypt, and Negro or Nigrita from West Africa. All the above are native African words. "Negro" is probably the oldest as the Negritos are the oldest known branch of the human race. "Negro" comes from the River Niger. "Niger" found its way into Latin and since the people from that region were dark-skinned, Niger, nigra, nigrum came to mean black. Negro, Negrito, Nigrita, means "the people of the great river." Black and colored, like white, are, on the other hand. European words. Ethiopian and Moor were popularly used to describe the so called blacks until 1500 Shakespeare uses "Negro" only once and uses it synonymously with Moor. Africa comes from the ancient Egyptian "Afruika," or Kafrica, the land of the Kaffir.
1506 AFFONSO I KING OF THE KONGO (1506-1540) Affonso I was a visionary, a man who saw his country not as a group of separate cultures, but as a unified nation fully equipped with advance knowledge and technology. He was also known as the first ruler to resist the most despicable act ever known to man, the European slave trade.
1511 Alessandro, born 1511, became reigning Duke of Florence, and married Margaret only daughter of the Emperor Charles V, Ruler of Germany, the Netherlands Austria, and Spain in 1536.Alessandro was the son of Anna, a Negro servant girl of Calavecchio, Italy, wife of a white mule driver, who became the concubine of Pope Clement VII.
1513 Balboa's expedition to the Pacific included thirty Blacks who were instrumental in clearing the way between two oceans. April
1517 Bishop Las Casas influenced the Spanish government to allow Spaniards to import twelve Negroes each to encourage immigration to the New World.
1526 The first slave revolt took place in the first United States settlement which contained slaves -- an area in present-day South Carolina. April 22.
1536 Estevanico, a Negro from Morocco, was one of a party of four to cross the North American continent in for the first time. The journey took nine years. In 1539, he headed an expedition that discovered Arizona and New Mexico. Estevanico's travels served to open up the Southwest and the States west of Florida, as far as the pacific.
1538 Estevanico (Little Stephen), a Black explorer, led expedition from Mexico and discovered Arizona and New Mexico.
Askia, the Great, Emperor of Songhay. ruled an empire that stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Chad, and larger than Western Europe. His capital was Timbuctoo.
1539 Blacks accompanied De Soto on his Journey to the Mississippi.
1540 The second settler in the state of Alabama was a Black who was with De Soto's expedition. Liking the land, he settled among the Indians.
1562 John Hawkins carried slaves from Portuguese Africa to Spanish America.
1565 Blacks were with Mendez in founding St. Augustine, Florida.
1580 IDRIS ALOOMA, RULER OF BORNU (1580-1617). He is credited with re-uniting two of Africa's Kingdoms, the kingdoms of Kanem and Bornu. This union lasted many generations with sustain peace becoming a part of the Bornu.
1582 NZINGHA, AMAZON QUEEN OF MATAMBA WEST AFRICA (1582-1663) A very good military leader who waged war against the savage slave-hunting Europeans. This war lasted for more than thirty years. Nzingha was of Angoloan descent and is known as a symbol of inspiration for people everywhere. Queen Nzingha is also known by some as Jinga by others as Ginga. She was a member of the ethnic Jagas a militant group that formed a human shield against the Portuguese slave traders. As a visionary political leader, competent, and self sacrificing she was completely devoted to the resistance movement. She formed alliances with other foreign powers pitting them against one another to free Angola of European influence. She possessed both masculine hardness and feminine charm and used them both depending on the situation. She even used religion as a political tool when it suited her. Her death on December 17, 1663 helped open the door for the massive Portuguese slave trade. Yet her struggle helped awaken others that followed her and forced them to mount offensives against the invaders. These include Madame Tinubu of Nigeria; Nandi, the mother of the great Zulu warrior Chaka; Kaipkire of the Herero people of South West Africa; and the female army that followed the Dahomian King, Behanzin Bowelle.
1588 AMINA, QUEEN Of ZARIA (1588-1589) This queen of Zazzua, a province of Nigeria now known as Zaria, was born around 1533 during the reign of Sarkin (king) Zazzau Nohir. She was probably his granddaughter. Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west. Its wealth was due to trade of mainly leather goods, cloth, kola, salt, horses and imported metals. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling queen of Zazzua. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials. Although her mother's reign was known for peace and prosperity, Amina also chose to learn military skills from the warriors. Queen Bakwa died around 1566 and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power. When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina became queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever. Her main focus, however, was not on annexation of neighboring lands, but on forcing local rulers to accept vassal status and permit Hausa traders safe passage. She is credited with popularizing the earthen city wall fortifications, which became characteristic of Hausa city-states since then. She ordered building of a defensive wall around each military camp that she established. Later, towns grew within these protective walls, many of which are still in existence. They're known as "ganuwar Amina", or Amina's walls. She is mostly remembered as "Amina, Yar Bakwa ta san rana," meaning "Amina, daughter of Nikatau, a woman as capable as a man. Contributed by Danuta Bois
1600 Explorers from Spain brought the first slaves to America.
1619 A Dutch ship anchored at Jamestown, Virginia, with a cargo of "twenty Negras" thus began Black history in English America. Aug
It is generally agreed that black history began in America in 1619.
1620 The first public school for Negroes and Indians in Virginia was established.
1624 William Tucker was the first Black child born and baptized in English America at Jamestown. Virginia.
References were made to slavery in some Maryland legislation
1634 While slavery in Maryland was not recognized by law until 1663, slavery came into existence shortly after the first settlements were made in 1634.
1638 First Black slaves were brought into New England.
1640 Virginia Colony. Some Africans had become bondmen for life. In one instance in this year, three runaway servants (two Whites and one Black) were recaptured. The court ordered the White servants to serve their master for one additional year. The Black servant was ordered `to serve his said master or his assigns for time of his natural life here or elsewhere
1641 Massachusetts was the first colony to recognize slavery as a legal institution.
1644 Marriage of Antony van Angola and Lucie d'Angola was the first in Negro life to be recorded in America on Manhattan Island.
1645 Voyage of the Rainbowe, the first American slave ship.
1661 First individual petition of a Black for his freedom addressed to the colony of New Netherland was granted.
This year marked the actual statutory recognition of slavery in Virginia. The status of Blacks already there was not affected if they had completed their indenture and were free.
1662 Virginia enacted a statute making slavery hereditary, following the status of the mother. Virginia took another step to fully enslave Blacks. In that year, laws were enacted that children born in the colony would hold bond or free status according to the condition or status of the mother
1663 The first major slave rebellion in colonial America took place in Gloucester. Virginia.
Legalized slavery was instituted in Maryland. It undertook enslaving all Blacks in the colony regardless of their being freemen or indentured, or regardless of the status of the mother
1664 Maryland passed a law preventing marriages between English women and Negroes; several of the colonies followed suit soon thereafter.
1665 Maria Theresa of Spain and Austria, wife of Louis XIV, King of France. bore him a mulatto daughter. The Queen, spent most of her time with a Negro dwarf, named Nabo, while the King passed most of his with the beauties that thronged his court. The doctors explained the color of the child by saying that the black man looked at the Queen. "It must have been a very penetrating look," said the King, wrathfully. A noted writer of that time attributed the color of a similar child, born to a high noblewoman to the mother's fondness for chocolate.
1667 Law provided that slaves could be baptized as Christians; but the conferring of Christianity did not alter the condition of the person as to bondage or freedom.
1670 Virginia passed a law forbidding Negroes from buying white people. This was fifty-one years after the Negro had arrived in chains. The same law was repeated in 1748. Free Negroes bought white people in such numbers in Louisiana, that the state made a similar law in 1818.
1671 Virginia, in 1671, passed a law that lumped the slaves with sheep, horses, and cattle as property. Maryland passed Act declaring that conversion of slaves to Christianity did not affect their slave status.
The law stated that Christianity did not change the status of the slave.
1672 The King of England chartered the Royal African Company which came to dominate the world slave trade.
1680 Slavery had been enacted in the Carolinas
OSEI TUTU, KING OF ASANTE (1680-1717), Osei Tutu was the founder and first king of the Asante nation, a great West African kingdom in what is now Ghana. He was able to unite over six different nations under his leadership. The Golden Stole became a sacred symbol of the nation's soul, which was especially appropriate since gold was the prime source of Asante wealth. During Osei Tutu's reign, the geographic area of Asante tripled in size. The kingdom became a significant power, that with his military and political prowess as an example, would endure for two centuries.
1681 Maryland passed a law which brought her into line with the established practices of Virginia by declaring that Black children of White mothers and children born of free Black mothers would be free
1686 The Carolina colony forbade Blacks to engage in any kind of trade and forbade them to leave their masters plantations without written authorization.
1688 Quakers of Germantown, Pennsylvania. made the first formal protest against slavery in the Western hemisphere. Feb.18. The Mennonite Quakers staged the first formal protest against slavery by an organized white group.
1692 Abraham Hannibal, born. He was captured as a slave in Africa. He was adopted by Peter the Great as his son and taught military engineering. Later Hannibal became tutor to the heir to the throne, and commander-in-chief of the Russian army. He died in 1782 at the age of 90. owning vast estates and 2000 white slaves.
1700 The Presbyterians, in the 1700's were in the forefront in making education directly available to blacks.
1704 Elias Nau, a Frenchman, opened the first school for Blacks in New York City.
1705 Virginia enacted a law permitting owners to list people as property.
1710 Jose Vasconcelos (El Negrito Poeta), born of African Congo parents at Almolonga, Mexico, about 1710, wrote verses that were so popular that they entered into Mexican folk-lore and were printed annually on the calendars of Mexico until 1872, one hundred and twelve years after his death.
1712 Early slave revolt in New York City. April 7.
Pennsylvania passed first legislation to prevent importation of slaves.
1713 Anthony Benezet, a teacher of Blacks and leading abolitionist in Pennsylvania, born.
England's victory over France gave England control over the slave trade.
1715 Francisco Xavier de Luna Victoria was the first Black to become bishop in America (Panama).
1720 Jupiter Hammon of Long Island, the first Black American writer, was born in Africa.
1727 Muley Ismael, Emperor of Morocco, died. Muley Ismael's ships raided the coasts of Europe for slaves until his death. His mother was a Negro slave. He had 25,000 white slaves captured on the seas or on the coasts of Europe and the British Isles, to build his palace at Meknes. Muley Ismael's stables were the vastest in existence with stalls for 12,000 horses.
1731 Benjamin Banneker, colonial mathematician and astronomer was born near Baltimore, Maryland. Nov.9 Benjamin Banneker was born Nov 9th in Ellicott Mills, MD. Mr. Banneker was a self-taught mathematician and astronomer. At the age of 21, he made a wooden clock, which kept accurate time until his death. This clock was believed to be the first clock wholly made in the United States. Some of his many accomplishments include: accurately predicting an eclipse in 1798, being instrumental in the planning and building of the District of Columbia, and publishing an annual almanac for farmers from 1792 to 1802 (the first scientific book written by an African-American). He became a national hero for many Black people and a number of schools have been named in his honor.
1733 Samuel Sewall published the first anti-slavery tract which appeared in the colonies, "The Selling of Joseph."
Georgia was the only important New World colony to be established by England in the 18th Century. It differed in several ways from earlier English colonies. It was to grant no tree land titles; to permit the use of no alcoholic beverages; to allow no slavery. However. from its establishment in 1733, each of these proscriptions were subjected to pressure and fell one by one.
1741 A serious slave revolt in New York City resulted in the hanging of eighteen Blacks - (March -April). New York City became the scene of the first mass execution of blacks in American history.
1745 A Black, Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Saible, who established a trading post which later became the city of Chicago, was born in Haiti.
1746 Toussaint L'ouverture, revolutionary leader of Haiti, born. May 20
1747 Absalom Jones, first Black minister ordained in America, born a slave in Sussex, Delaware.
1748 Prince Hall, successful businessman and founder of Negro Free Masonry, born. The Masonic lodge on (5/5/1797) was the first for African Americans in the United States
1750 Crispus Attucks, first martyr of the American Revolution, escaped from his master in Framingham, Massachusetts. Sept.30.
In the Georgia colony the prohibition of slavery fell.
1753 Scipio Moorhead, earliest known Black artist, born Lemuel Haynes, first Negro to serve as pastor in white congregation in the United states, born July 18
1754 A 22 year old free black astronomer and mathematician named Benjamin Banneker became the first person in North America to build a clock.
1756 John Woolman began his campaign against slavery. May 12.
1758 Frances Williams, first Black college graduate in Western hemisphere, published Latin poems. April 17.
1759 Paul Cuffee, business leader and philanthropist, born. Jan.17. Paul Cuffee sought to establish a black American colony in Sierre Leone in 1811.
1760 Richard Allen, founder and bishop of the African Methodist Church, born a slave near Philadelphia. Feb. 14.
1761 Phillis Wheatley, poetess of the American Revolutionary period, arrived in Boston harbor on a slave ship.
1761 Jupiter Hammon, published "An Evening Thought." Dec 15
1762 James Durham, the first recognized Black medical doctor in America, born in Philadelphia.
1768 Rev. James Varick, first Superintendent and bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, born in New York city.
1770 Crispus Attucks was the first of the five men to be killed in the Boston Massacre. March 5th. This event marks the start of the American Revolution.
Anthony Benezet opened school for Negroes in Philadelphia. June 28.
1772 Lord Mansfield handed down his decision in the Somerset case against the existence of slavery on English soil. This case stimulated requests for legislative action against slavery in New England. June 22.
In Carolinas, White justices were authorized to search Blacks for guns, swords, and other offensive weapons; and to take them unless the suspect could produce a permit less than one month old authorizing him to carry such a weapon. Patrols were given the right to search Blacks and to whip those deemed to be dangerous to peace and good order.
1773 George Leile and Andrew Bryan organized the first Negro Baptist Church in Savannah, Georgia. The Negro Baptist Church is the first African American church to be built in the U.S. colonies.
Bill Richmond, father of modern prize fighting, born in Staten Island.
Phyllis Wheatley is the first black author and poet whose book was published.
Jean Baptiste Point du Saible, first permanent settler in Chicago, purchased the house and land of Jean Baptiste Millet at "Old Peoria Fort."
Massachusetts slaves petitioned the state legislature for their freedom. Jan. 6.
1774 Continental Congress voted an agreement not to import any slaves after December 1.
1775 Benjamin Franklin was elected president upon the establishment of the first abolition society organized in America by the Quakers in Philadelphia. April 14.
Black soldiers fought in the Battle of Bunker Hill. Peter Salem, who shot down Major Pitcairn. was one of the heroes of the day. June 17.
Lemuel Haynes, Epheram Blackman and Primas Black help capture Fort Ticonderoga as members of Ethan Allens Green Mountain Boys.
Continental Congress passed a resolution barring Blacks from the American Revolutionary Army. Oct.13. During the revolution 5,000 slaves and 25,000 free blacks joined the British cause which included a promise of emancipation.
Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation offering freedom to all male slaves who joined the British forces. Nov. 7
General George Washington, alarmed by the response to Dunmore's Proclamation, ordered recruiting officers to accept free Blacks for military service. December 31.
Thomas Paine wrote his first published essay in the cause of abolition. in a Pennsylvania newspaper.
The first lodge of Negro Free Masons was founded by Prince Hall - July:3
1776 Continental Congress approved Washington's action of permitting free Blacks to enlist in the Revolutionary Army. Jan.16.
Mason-Dixon line named for two English surveyors. Feb. 15
Phyllis Wheatley was invited by General Washington to visit him at his headquarters in Cambridge, Mass., so that he might express appreciation for her poem in his honor. Feb 28.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted without section denouncing slave trade, one of the original grievances against the British king. July 4.
All of the 13 colonies had slaves by the time of the American Revolution in 1776.
Two Blacks Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell, were with General Washington on Christmas day when he crossed the Delaware. Dec.25.
Gabriel Prosser, leader of historic slave revolt in Virginia, born a slave
1777 Vermont was the first state to abolish slavery. July 2.
1778 Four hundred Blacks held off fifteen hundred British in the Battle of Rhode Island . Aug.28
NANDI, QUEEN OF ZULULAND (Symbol of a woman of high esteem) (1778-1826), Mother of the great leader Shaka Zulu. Nandi is the everlasting symbol of hard work patience and determination. She withstood and overcame many obstacles to raise to a position of power in all Zululand.
More than three thousand Blacks fought in the Revolutionary War.
1779 Twenty slaves petitioned the New Hampshire legislature to abolish slavery. Nov. 12.
Anthony Wayne's victory at Stony Point made possible by the spying of "Pompey, " a Black soldier.
The founder of the City or Chicago was Baptist Pointe de Saible, a Negro.
1780 Pennsylvania passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery.
Blacks protested against taxation without representation. Seven Blacks in Dartmouth, MA including Paul Cuffe and his brother John, protested in a petition to the Revolutionary legislature of their state against the fact that they were subjected to taxation with the right to vote. In 1783, by court decision, Blacks subjected to taxation were declared to be entitled to vote.
Lott Carey, an early Negro Baptist missionary, born
First license to a Black preacher granted.
Lemuel Haynes was the first black minister certified as a pastor of a predominantly white church.
1781 Thomas Jefferson wrote Notes On The State Of Virginia which talked about the Negro's supposed inferiority.
1783 Revolutionary War soldiers, "The Black Regiment, " disbanded at Saratoga, N.Y. June 13.
Treaty of Paris, Article VII, promised return to Americans all Negro slaves.
1784 North Carolina answered petition of Edward Griffin, Black Revolutionary soldier, commended his meritorious service and freed him, May 4.
Phillis Wheatley died in Boston. Dec 5.
1785 Constitutional Convention approved three clauses protecting slavery Sep 17
David Walker, first Black to attack slavery in published writings, born in Wilmington, North Carolina - Sept. 28.
1786 Arthur Tappan, leading white abolitionist, born May22.
1787 Congress added a provision to the Northwest Ordinance forbidding slavery in the territory covered by the Ordinance, July 13
First free school in New York City, the African Free School, opened. Nov. 1 The Manumission Society founded the Free African Schools of New York.
A party of 351 freed Negroes was aboard ship at Portsmouth, England, enroute to Sierre Leone, West Africa, the authorities brought on board sixty-two white women, prostitutes and others, whom they wished to get rid of, and married them to as many men, and sent them off to be the future mothers of the colony
Prince Hall headed the first "official black" Masonic Order, organized in the U.S.
1788 Andrew Bryan ordained the first pastor of the First African Baptist church organized in Savannah, Georgia. Jan. 19-20.
1789 Josiah Season, the model for Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom, "of the famed novel, was born a slave in Maryland,' he later became a leading abolitionist orator - June 15
Astronomer Benjamin Banneker predicted the solar eclipse of 1789
1790 The Pennsylvania Abolition Society petitioned Congress to abolish slavery. Feb. 3.
Samuel Cornish born in Delaware.
First United States Census showed Black population of 757,181 with 59,557 free.
1791 Benjamin Banneker was appointed, at the suggestion of Thomas Jefferson, to serve as member of commission headed by L'enfant to lay out plans for the city of Washington in District of Columbia. Benjamin Banneker wrote the famous "Letter to Thomas Jefferson" pleading for racial justice in 1791.
The nondenominational African Church is founded on 7/7/1791 by Richard Allen, Absalom Jones and Benjamin Rush.
Jean Francois, leader of the Haitian blacks in 1791, an ex-slave and once superior officer of Toussaint L'Ouverture, rose to be a grandee of Spain. This gave him the privilege of calling the king of Spain "cousin," and wearing his hat in the royal presence. He was a favorite at the Court Madrid.
Benjamin Banneker wrote the famous "Letter to Thomas Jefferson" pleading for racial justice in 1791.
1792 Antoine Blanc founded the first Negro Catholic sisterhood in the united States. Oct. 11
Castaing, an Haitian Negro, was a member of the Paris Convention of 1792-1795. He was married to The Countess de Beauharnais, who was related by marriage to Napoleon.
The type of books published by Benjamin Banneker from 1792 to 1802 were called "Almanac."
1793 Benjamin Lundy, colonizationist, born. Jan. 4.
First Fugitive Slave Law enacted by Congress, making it criminal offense to protect a fugitive slave. Feb. 12. Runaway slaves were required t be returned to their masters.
Eli Whitney invented cotton gin which influenced mass transportation of Blacks and thereby strengthened slaver as an institution.
Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia sought the aid of the Blacks of the city to administer medicines and care for die sick during yellow fever epidemic. It was believed that Blacks were immune.
1794 Richard Allen organized African Methodist Episcopal Church. June 10.
St. Thomas Church, Philadelphia, first Episcopal Negro Congregation, organized Oct. 12.
1796 Zion Methodist Church organized in New York City.
1797 First petition by Blacks was submitted to Congress protesting a North Carolina law requiring Blacks who were freed by their Quaker masters to be returned to the state and to their slavery status. The petition was rejected. Jan. 30.
Sojourner Truth, leading abolitionist and activist figure in Black history, born a slave in Hurley, New York as Isabella Van Wagener in 1797. This black abolitionist was born under the name of Isabella Baumtree in 1797.
1798 Thaddeus Koscuisko, Polish patriot, left will providing for education of Blacks. May 5.
James P. Beckwourth, scout for General Fremont and noted pioneer and explorer of the West, born in Virginia.
Levi Coffin, organizer of the underground railroad, born. Oct.28.
1799 Alexander Pushkin, Russian Black poet, born in Moscow.
1800 The free Blacks of Philadelphia presented a petition to Congress opposing the slave trade, the Fugitive Act of 1793, and the institution of slavery itself. Jan. 2.
Gabriel Prosser, a Virginia slave, was betrayed in his plot to lead thousands of slaves in an attack on Richmond, Virginia. Dozens of slaves were imprisoned or hanged on the spot. and Gabriel himself was publicly hanged. Aug.30.
The English word, "admiral," and the French equivalent, "amiral," were adopted as the result of the great admiration held for the Negroid sea-rovers who used to scour the coasts of Europe for slaves as late as the 19th Century. It comes from the Amir-al Balir (Lord of the Seas), the commander of the sea-rovers. The principal port of the latter was Salee, Morocco.
John Brown born in Torrington, Connecticut. May 9.
James Durham began practicing medicine in New Orleans.
Nat Turner, destined to lead another major slave rebellion, born a slave in Southhampton County, Virginia. Oct. 2.
1802 Alexander Dumas, French novelist of Black extraction. Born in France.
General Rigaud, the great mulatto rival of Toussaint L'Ouverture, were both thrown into the same dungeon in France by Napoleon. Later at St. Helena, Napoleon declared that the imprisonment of Toussaint was a grave political error. Toussaint LOuverture had planned after Haiti was freed to go to Dehomey, West Africa, and use it as a base from which to fight the slave trade. For this purpose he saved 6,000,000 gold francs, equivalent to that sum in dollars now, which he entrusted to Stephen Girard, an American ship Captain. After the treacherous capture of Toussaint, Girard would not turn over this money to Toussaint's family. During his nine months imprisonment Toussaint was tormented by Napoleon's agents to reveal the hiding-place of the money. Later Girard, a Frenchman by birth. Became the richest American of his day. He left millions on his death in 188l for the founding of Girard College in Philadelphia, stipulating that it should be for whites only. He also gave money to buy coal for the poor of Philadelphia, with the same provisions.
1803 Lunsford Lane. noted lecturer for the American Anti-slavery Society, born a slave in Raleigh, North Carolina.
Toussaint L'ouverture, slave leader of Haitian Revolution, died. April 27.
1804 The Ohio legislature enacted the first of the "Black Laws" which restricted rights and movements of Negroes in the North; other Northern states soon passed similar legislation. Jan 5.
Bill Richmond was the first black American to gain fame as a prizefighter.
Timeline event in which all northern states have passed antislavery laws or measures to allow the gradual emancipation of current slaves.
1805 Benjamin Banneker died. Oct. 9th in Ellicot City, MD.
William E. Dodge, proponent of Black education, born.
1806 Maria Weston Chapman, abolitionist, born. July 25.
Norbert Rillieux, inventor and scientist, born in New Orleans.
1807 British Parliament abolished the slave trade. March 25.
In 1807, Congress officially abolished slave trade in the U.S.
The AME church Feb 18th publishes the first hymnbook written by African Americans.
Ira F. Aldridge, one of the greatest Shakespearean actors of his time, was born in New York City.
Charles Bennet Ray, minister, editor, lecturer, organizer, and abolitionist, born in Massachusetts.
The first school house for blacks was built in the District of Columbia.
1808 Federal law barring the African slave trade went into effect. Jan 1.
John VI, King of Portugal, a dark mulatto, transferred his throne to Rio de Janeiro in 1808. He was the maker of modern Brazil. He ruled Portugal from Brazil. This is the first and only time a European country has been ruled by an American one.
1809 Abraham Lincoln born in Harden County, Kentucky, Feb. 12.
James W. C. Pennington, leader in the Free Negro Convention Movement which outlined an ideology and tactics for the Black protest in the 19th century, born a slave in Washington County, Maryland
Abyssinian Baptist Church organized in New York City. July 5.
1810 Charles Lenox Remond, leader of the American Anti-Slavery Society, born in Massachusetts. Feb 1
Thomy Lafon, philanthropist who supported the American Anti-slavery society and the underground railroad, born in New Orleans.
Antonio Ruiz (El Negro Falucho),The national hero of Buenos Aires, now the City of Buenos Aires. was the patriot who died rather than let the rebels pull down the flag of Buenos Aires and hoist that of Spain on the night of February 3. A magnificent monument stands to his honor in that city.
Theodore Parker, liberal minister, born. Aug.24.
Cassius M. Clay, Kentucky emancipationist, born, Oct.19.
David Ruggles, founder of Mirror of Liberty--first Black periodical -born. David Ruggles, a black abolitionist who helped Frederick Douglass escape from slavery, also wrote Used Up (1834).
1811 Charles Sumner, great New England advocate of Black rights, born. Jan. 6.
Rev. Daniel A. Payne, African Methodist Episcopalian, who established Union Seminary near Columbus. Ohio, born. Feb.24.
Paul Cuffe sought to establish a black American colony in Sierre Leone.
Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Toms Cabin, born. June 14
1812 Martin R. Delaney, newspaper editor and author, Union Army Major, born. May 6.
George Washington. pioneer, humanitarian and founder of Centralia, Washington, born a slave, Aug.15.
Ida B. Wells became the first woman president of the Negro Fellowship League.
The Union Church of Africans, organized and incorporated. Sept.25.
The first migration of U.S. blacks to Africa was to the country Sierra Leone.
Bishop Richard Allen and Reverend Absalom Jones were requested to help organize defenses for Philadelphia against the British who had recently attacked Washington.
John Johnson, one of many Blacks who served in the Navy on the Great Lakes during the War of 1812, was described by his commander after his death in a naval battle: "When America has such tars, She has little to fear from tyrants of the ocean."
1813 Henry Ward Beecher, promoter for equal rights, born. June 24.
James McCune Smith born of slaves in New York City -
1814 Daniel Reaves Goodloe, North Carolinian emancipationist, born. May28.
General Andrew Jackson appealed to free Blacks to fight as part of the militia. Sept.21.
New York legislature authorized the raising of two Black regiments. As a result 2000 Blacks were enlisted and sent to the army at Sacketts Harbor. Oct. 24
1815 Henry Highland Garnet, minister, abolitionist, and diplomat, born a slave in Kent County, Maryland. Dec.23
MOSHOESHOE, KING OF BASUTOLAND (1815-1868), Moshoeshoe was a wise and just king who was as brilliant in diplomacy as he was in battle. He united many diverse groups into a stable society where law and order prevailed. He knew that peace made prosperity possible, so he often avoided conflict through skillful negotiations. Moshoeshoe solidified Basotho defenses at Thaba Bosiu, their impregnable mountain capital.
Myrtilla Miner, founder of Miner's Teachers College, born. March 4
1816 The African Methodist Episcopal Church became independent of jurisdictional control by higher all white bodies. April 9.
Peter Salem, hero of Bunker Hill, died. Aug.16,
John Jones, "the most prominent citizen of Chicago" during his lifetime, born in Greene County, North Carolina.
The Seminole Wars led by General Andrew Jackson began with an attack on a fort in western Florida which contained hundreds of runaway slaves living among the Creek and Seminole Indians who occupied it.
Bishop Daniel Wayne, reformer and educator, born
1817 Free Blacks in the large cities held protest meetings against the American Colonization Society's efforts to "exile us from the land of our nativity." Jan
Frederick Douglass, orator, editor, diplomat and statesman, was born a slave in Talbot County, Maryland. Feb. 14
Victor Sejour, Black Creole poet and dramatist, born June 2.
The American Colonization Society was organized under the leadership of John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay. Its purpose was to transport free Negroes to Africa. Dec.28
Samuel Ringgold Ward, the "B1ack Daniel Webster, " was born in Maryland; he was one of the most noted Black abolitionists. Oct. 17.
James Forten, Black abolitionist, was chairman of the First Negro Convention held in Philadelphia. Jan.23
Paul Cuffee, Black shipbuilder, ship owner and African colonizer, died at Westport, MA on Sep 7th. Cuffee was one of the first persons in America to advocate the colonization of Blacks in Africa. In 1815, he spent $4,000 to send 38 Blacks to Sierre Leone, but his plans for additional expeditions were cut short by his death..
1818 Philadelphia free Blacks established the Pennsylvania Augustine Society, "for the education of people of colour."
SHAKA, KING OF THE ZULUS (1818-1828), A strong leader and military innovator, Shaka is noted for revolutionizing 19th century Bantu warfare by first grouping regiments by age, and training his men to use standardized weapons and special tactics. He developed the "assegai" a short stabbing spear, and marched his regiments in tight formation, using large shields to fend off the enemies throwing spears. Over time, Shaka's troops earned such a reputation that many enemies would flee at the sight of them. He built the Zulus into a nation of over a million strong. He was also successful in uniting all the ethnic groups in South Africa against the despicable vestiges of colonialism.
Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, a colored man, ascended to the throne of Sweden as Charles XIV. He was the founder of the present royal family of Sweden. Enlisting as a private in Napoleons army he rose to be field-marshal.
One of the most celebrated cases of a white person sold as a Negro was Sally Muller, who was held in servitude in :Louisiana for twenty-six years. Court after court ruled against her. Finally her birth certificate was dug up in Germany and she was freed by the Supreme Court in 1818. White children were kidnapped in the British Isles at the rate of several thousands yearly in the 17th and 18th centuries and sold into slavery in America and the West Indies. Sometimes they were bootlegged and sold as Negroes. White Americans, North and South, were also kidnapped or seduced and sold as Negroes as late as 1859.
St Philip's Episcopal Church was opened for Blacks in New York City.
Absalom Jones died . Feb. 13.
Charles L. Reason, black writer, born July 21
1819 KHAMA, THE GOOD KING OF BECHUANALAND, (1819-1923), Khama distinguish his reign by being highly regarded as a peace loving ruler with the desire of advancing his country in terms of technological innovations. He instituted scientific cattle feeding techniques which greatly improved his country's wealth and prestige. During his reign crimes were known to be as low as zero within his country.
1820 Missouri Compromise enacted; prohibited slavery north of Missouri. March 3.
The United States Army is forbidden to accept black and mulattos to service.
Prince Abd-El-Rashman, a highly educated grandson of Askia, the Songhay Emperor in Timbuctoo, was captured in battle and sold into slavery in America. Years later a white doctor, who had traveled in his land, saw him at Natchez, Mississippi. Rahman was freed in 1820. $4,000 was paid for the liberation of his children.
Harriet Tubman born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland. In 1892 she receives a pension from Congress (8/6/1892) for her work as a nurse, spy and scout during the Civil War.
The American Colonization Society founded Liberia, a Negro Republic in West Africa.
1821 Lott Carey, minister and pioneer leader in Liberia, sailed for that country. Jan .23.
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded in New York City. June 21
Thomas L. Jennings on March 3rd becomes the first African American to be granted a patent in the United States for a method of dry scouring clothes.
Samuel E. Cornish organized the first black Presbyterian Church in New York City in 1821
William Still, author of Underground Railroad and leading underground spokesman, born in New Jersey. Oct. 7
Alexander Crummell, one of the most highly educated Blacks of his time, born.
JA JA, KING OF THE OPOBO, (1821-1891), He was the founder and leader of the territory of Opobo an area near the Eastern Nigeria River. This area was very favorable to trading. This trading route soon attracted the greedy Europeans who seek to capture this trading route. Ja Ja put up fierce resistance to this outside intervention. This resistance lasted for many years until at an older age of 70 he was finally captured by the British and sent into exile to the West Indies. The greatest Ibo leader of the nineteenth century never saw his kingdom again.
1822 Denmark Vesey planned one of the most extensive slave revolts ever recorded. The plot was betrayed and *Vesey together with thirty-six others were executed. July 2.
Pedro I, colored son or John VI, became first emperor of Brazil in 1822. Pedro I married the sister of Napoleon's second wife. Gloria, Pedro's daughter, became Queen of Portugal and was a sister-in-law of Victoria, Queen of England. Many members of European royalty trace their ancestry to the Negro ruler, John VI.
Freed U.S. Blacks settle in Liberia, Africa. Feb 6th - First organized emigration of U.S. Blacks back to Africa, from New York to Sierra Leone.
Hiram R. Revels, first Black United States Senator, was born free in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Sept.27.
The Bird School, later known as the James Forten School, opened as the first public school for blacks in Philadelphia.
Rev. John Gloucester., first Black minister of a Presbyterian church, died.
1823 Thomas Wentworth Higginson, white commander or Black soldiers, born.
Mary Ann Shadd born Oct 9th in Wilmington, DE. She will become the first woman in North America to publish and edit a newspaper.
1825 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, poet and orator, born in Baltimore, Maryland.
1826 James Madison Bell, poet and abolitionist, born free at Gallipolis, Ohio. April, 3.
White people were sold in the United States up to 1826, fifty years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, was a runaway, and was advertised for in the newspapers. In Virginia, white servitude was for a limited period, but was sometimes extended for life. In the West Indies, particularly in the case of the Irish, it was for life. They were Europeans, mostly British, who died like flies on the slave-ships across. On one voyage 1,100 perished out of 1,500. At another time 350 out of 400. The first slave; held in the United States were not black, but white.
John Russworm was the first Black; to graduate from an American college when he received his degree from Bowdoin College, Maine.
Ira F. Aldridge made his London debut in Othello; he never returned to America and became the most famous Shakespearean actor of his time on the continent.
1827 Slavery was officially abolished in New York State. July 4. Ten thousand African Americans are freed when this event occurred.
The Negro Baptist church of St. Louis was founded.
Freedom's Journal, the first Black newspaper, was published in New York City by John Russworm and Samuel Cornish . March 16.
The first order of black nuns in the United States was established in Baltimore, Maryland.
1828 Lott Carey, first missionary to Liberia, died. April 1.
Approximately 10,000 blacks in New York State were impacted by the abolishment of slavery on July 4, 1828.
1829 Walker's Appeal, militant anti-slavery pamphlet published by David Walker, was distributed throughout the country and aroused the Blacks and provoked slave-holders. Jan.18.
John Mercer Langston born. Dec 14.
1830 James Augustine Healy, the first Black Roman Catholic bishop in America, born to an Irish planter and a Negro slave on a plantation near Macon, Georgia. April 6.
S. R. Lowry, religious educator, born. Dec. 9.
United States Bureau of the Census reported 3,777 Black heads of families who owned slaves; most of these Blacks lived in Louisiana. Maryland. Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.
SAMORY TOURE, King of the Sudan (1830-1900), The ascendance of Samory Toure began when his native Bissandugu was attacked and his mother taken captive. After a persuasive appeal, Samory was allowed to take her place, but later escaped and joined the army of King Bitike Souane of Torona. Following a quick rise through the ranks of Bitike's army, Samory returned to Bissandugu where he was soon installed as king and defied French wicked exploits in Africa by launching a conquest to unify West Africa into a single state. During the eighteen year conflict with France, Samory continually frustrated the Europeans with his military strategy and tactics. This astute military prowess brought him respect world wide.
Dan Rice, famous white "blackface" minstrel began performing "Jump Jim Crow" song-dance--from which song the words "Jim Crow" came to be applied to legal segregation.
1831 The first issue or the Liberator was published by William Lloyd Garrison. Jan. 1
Nat Turner led the greatest slave rebellion in (history) the United States in Virginia; the whole South was thrown into panic and more than one hundred and sixty whites and Negroes were killed before the revolt ended. Aug 21 - 23.
Bishop John Walden advocate of Black education, born. Feb.11.
Nat Turner executed. Nov. 11.
1832 Joseph P. Rainey, Black Congressman from South Carolina, born. June21. Joseph H. Rainey, of Georgetown, SC, on Oct 19th ,1870 became the first Black member of the U.S. Congress. In 1862, Rainey was forced to work on fortifications for the Confederate Army in Charleston, SC. He escaped to the West Indies and remained there until the close of the Civil War. He was a delegate to the South Carolina State Constitutional Convention in 1868 and a member of the state Senate in 1870, but resigned to run for a vacant seat in the House of Representatives. On Dec 12 he was sworn in to serve in the US House of Representatives. Rainey filled the seat of Benjamin Franklin Whittemore. He served until March 3, 1879.
Dr. Edward W. Blyden, distinguished scholar and diplomat, president of Liberia College, born. Aug. 3.
The New England Anti-slavery society was established by twelve whites at the African Baptist Church in Boston
1833 Oberlin College opened and admitted Blacks at the outset.
Frederick Douglass escaped from his master, disguised as a sailor, and fleesd to New York (9/3/38).
The Philadelphia Negro Library was organized.
Henry Macneil Turner, a bishop of the African Methodist Church and colonizationist, was free-born in Abbevville, South Carolina.
The American Anti-slavery Society was organized in Philadelphia by Negro and white abolitionists. Dec. 4.
1834 Slavery abolished in the British Empire. Aug 1.
Henry Blair was the first black to receive a patent for an invention, a corn harvester - Oct.14. Henry Blair invented the corn harvester, a farm device which made him the first black to receive a patent for his invention.
The British Emancipation of 1834 proclaimed liberation throughout the Empire. Slavery abolished in the British Empire. Aug 1.
South Carolina enacted a law prohibiting the teaching of free or slave Black children.
Black youth leaders formed the Garrison Literary and Benevolent Association of New York in order "to begin, in early life, to assist each other to alleviate the afflicted "
The first school for Blacks in Cincinnati, paid for by themselves, was opened.
Bishop Isaac Lane, founder of Lane College in Jackson, Tennessee, born.
Anti -abolition riot broke out in Philadelphia and continued for three days and nights.
1835 Fifth National Negro Convention resolved to recommend that Blacks remove the word "African" from the names of their institutions and organizations, and also to abandon the use of the word "colored" when referring to themselves. June 1-5.
John Greenleaf Whittier published his poem, "My Countrymen in Chains."
New York City Blacks formed a bigilance committee to prevent kidnapping of Blacks and to assist fugitive slaves.
William Whipper helped to found the American Moral Reform Society, a Black abolitionist group.
1836 Theodore S. Wright ~ first Black to receive a degree from a theological seminary in the United States (Princeton). Nov. 5
1837 P. S. B. Pinchback, Black Reconstructionist statesman in Louisiana, born, May 10
Robert Gould Shaw, Colonel of the 54th Massachusetts Union Regiment, first Black company sent from the free states, born in Boston of a "proper" Bostonian family which was deeply committed to the cause of Black freedom. Oct. 10.
Elijah P. Lovejoy was murdered by a mob in Alton. Illinois, when he refused to stop publishing anti-slavery material. Nov. 7.
James M. Smith, University of Glasgow graduate, conducted pioneer work in the scientific study of race.
William Whipper published "An Address on Non-Resistance to Offensive Aggression"--an article written twelve yearn before Thoreau's famous essay on non-violence, and more than 125 years before the career of Martin Luther King, Jr.
1838 The first Black periodical, Mirror of Freedom, began publishing in New York City. Aug.30.
Frederick Douglass, abolitionist, escaped from slavery in Baltimore, Maryland. Sep 3.
Charles Lenox Remond became first Black lecturer employed by an anti-slavery society.
1839 Robert Smalls, Civil war hero and Reconstructionist Congressman, born in Beaufort, South Carolina, April 5.
Edmond Berger invents the spark plug. Feb 2.
Lunsford Lane of North Carolina made the only abolition speech before a southern audience. April 30.
Benjamin Lundy died. Aug.22.
Liberty Party, first anti-slavery political party, organized. Nov. 13.
Whites burned the Black section of: Pittsburgh .
The most famous slave mutiny revolt aboard a slave ship took place on the Spanish slaver the "Amistad." John Quincy Adams, at the age of 73 and out of law practice more than thirty years, argued the case before the United States Supreme Court, Cinque, the young African leader, and his fellow crewmen were freed by the Court.
1840 James M. Turner, a Lincoln University founder, born Jefferson City, Missouri, May 16.
Eight African American commodity brokers operated on the New Orleans Cotton Exchange during this period.
1841 Blanche Kelso Bruce, only Black to serve full term in United States Senate, born a slave at Prince Edward County, Virginia. March 1
BEHANZIN HOSSU BOWELLE, THE KING SHARK, (1841-1906) Behanzin was the most powerful ruler in West Africa during the end of the nineteenth century. He strongly resisted European intervention into his country. This was done with a physically fit army which included a division of five thousands female warriors. He is often referred to as the King Shark, a Dahomeyan surname which symbolized strength and wisdom. He was also fond of humanities and is credited with the creation of some of the finest song and poetry ever produced in Dahomey.
Dr. Charles B. Purvis, one of the physicians who attended President James Garfield after he was attacked by an assassin was born April 14th in Philadelphia. Dr. Purvis was the first black physician to serve on the D. C. Board of Medical Examiners.
President Tyler sent a message to Congress dealing with the suppression of the slave trade. June 1.
Frederick Douglass became lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Aug.
James M. Townsend, first Black to serve as member of Indiana Legislature, born, Aug.18.
Slave trader "Creole" was scene of slave revolt - Slaves took over ship and sailed to Bahamas where they were given asylum and freedom, Nov.
1842 Robert Brown Elliott, Reconstruction Congressman from South Carolina, born. Aug.11.
Allen Allensworth founder of the only community in California ever run by Blacks, and the highest-ranking Black military officer of his day, was born April 7th, in Louisville, KY. At age 12 he was sold by the plantation master for violating a law that prohibited Black from reading and writing. Allensworth escaped behind sympathetic Union lines and became an Army nurse. In 1871, Allensworth, a Baptist, was ordained a minister. In 1886, Allensworth, was appointed chaplain of the 14th Infantry by President Grover Cleveland, the only Black chaplain in the Army. In 1906, he retired with the rank of lieutenant colonel. Allensworth joined forces with William Payne, a schoolteacher, and the two decided to form a community where former slaves and their descendants could live free of racial discrimination. They chose Solito, a train deport near Bakersfield, CA, and renamed it Allensworth. In 1914 Allensworth was struck and killed by a motorcycle while promoting his community in Los Angeles.
Charlie Smith, last known slave brought to America, born in Liberia.
James Forten died in Philadelphia.
Capture of George Latimore in Boston precipitated the first of several famous fugitive slave cases which embittered North and South. Boston abolitionists raised enough money to purchase Latimore from his master. Nov. 17.
1843 Sojourner Truth, first Black woman to become lecturer against slavery, left New York and began her work as an abolitionist June 1.
Elijah J. McCoy, inventor and mechanical engineer, was born May 2nd.in Ontario, Canada. McCoy patented more than 50 inventions in the US and abroad. The expressions "the real McCoy" meaning the real thing - may have originated with machinery buyers who insisted their new equipment have only McCoy lubricators. Today the expression is used to mean that a product is genuine. He completed and patented his first lubricating cup in 1872. This cup permitted the oiling of heavy machinery without having to stop the machines. Before McCoys invention, machines had to be shut down frequently for lubrication.
Henry Highland Garnet made controversial speech at the National Convention of Colored Men in Buffalo calling for a slave revolt and a general strike. Aug.22.
Blacks participated in a national political gathering for the first time at a meeting of the Liberty Party convention in Buffalo, New York. Aug.30.
l844 James Beckwourth discovered a pass through the coast range to the Pacific Ocean which was named for him, Beckwourth Pass. April 26.
Elijah J. McCoy, inventor (lubricating cup), born. May 2.
MENELEK II, KING OF KINGS OF ABYSSINIA (1844-1913), Menelek II united many independent kingdoms into the United States of Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The feat of pulling together several kingdoms which often fiercely opposed each other earned him a place as one of the great statesmen of African history. His further accomplishments in dealing on the international scene with the world powers, coupled with his stunning victory over Italy in the 1896 Battle of Adwa, which was an attempt to invade his country, place him among the great leaders of world history.
Charles Nash, Congressman from Louisiana, born. May23.
1845 Macon B. Allen became the first black lawyer admitted to the bar in the United States. He was the first Black formally admitted to the bar when he passed the examination at Worcester, Massachusetts. May 3.
Hallie Quinn Brown born March 10th in Pittsburgh, PA. She became an author and womens rights activist.
Author Alexandre Dumas wrote The Three Musketeers (1884) and The Count or Monte Cristo (1845).
1846 Norbet Rillieux designs improvements in sugar making process. Dec 10.
Narrative of Frederick Douglass published.
Publication of Les Cenelles, in French and English, an anthology of poetry by Negro poets of New Orleans.
Frederick Douglass delivered the commencement address at Western Reserve College which was one of the first Black attempts to refute racism scientifically.
1847 Frederick Douglass and Martin R. Delaney began to publish theirhis own antislavery newspaper, the North Star. Dec 3.
Liberia, Africas greatest producer of iron ore, declared it independence on July 26th. It is the worlds second oldest independent nation of mainly Black citizens. Only Haiti is older. The first city settled there was Monrovia in 1822. It is the nations capital. Liberia has about 3 million people and covers 43,000 square miles.
William Alexander Leidesdorff, Black businessman, launched the first steamboat to sail in San Francisco Bay (8/2/47); he later built the first hotel in that city.
Dred Scott case initiated in St. Louis Circuit Court June 30.
1848 Negro blacksmith Lewis Temple invented a Toggle harpoon which became the standard harpoon of the American whaling industry.
William and Ellen Craft escaped from slavery in Georgia in one of the most dramatic escapes of the period. Dec - 26.
1849 Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland - July.
Waller Jackson becomes the first known African American to join the California gold rush (10/11/49).
The first African American real estate broker operated in the city of Pittsburgh, PA
Archibald H. Grimke, Harvard law School graduate and author of biographies of Charles Sumner and William Lloyd Garrison, born near Charleston, South Carolina, Aug. 17.
Benjamin Roberts filed tile first school integration suit on behalf of his daughter who had been denied admission to the white schools in Boston. The Supreme Court of Massachusetts rejected the suit and established the "separate but equal" doctrine.
"Blind Tom, " the greatest musical prodigy of his time, born a slave in Georgia.
1850 Fugitive Slave law passed by Congress as part of the Compromise of 1850; it offered federal officers a fee for captured slaves. Sept. 18.
Mrs. Leybonn, an English woman, was "Queen of the Slave-traders," at Rio Pongo, one of the principal slave posts in West-Africa. She had a fort armed with cannon and armed by 300 devoted blacks. She had three mulatto children by a Negro, a boy and two girls. One of the latter married a white slave-trader, and the other, a British Consul.
1851 William C. Nell published Services of Colored Americans in the Wars of 1776 and 1812, the first full length study of the American Black.
Walter H. Brooks, distinguished clergyman, born, Aug.30.
The Slave Trade Act, abolishing slavery, became effective in the District of Columbia.
1852 First edition of uncle Toms Cabin published. March 20,
Napoleon issued a decree against the slave trade. March 29.
1853 First Black YMCA established in Washington, D.C. Feb 25thJan. 3.
William Wells Brown wrote Clotel, the first novel by a Black American.
Publication of Solomon Northrops Narrative of a Slave, one of the most famous of the many narratives written by fugitive slaves telling their stories.
1854 Lincoln University, the first Black college, was chartered as Ashmond Institute in Chester, Pennsylvania, Jan. 1.
August Tolon, first Black Catholic priest to serve in the United States, was born in Battle Creek, Missouri April 1
Lucey C. Laney, founder of Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia, born. Apr 15
Kansas -Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Northern territory to slavery. May 30.
Anthony Burns was returned to slavery in Virginia in spite of an attempt by Boston citizens to purchase his freedom for $1200, June 3
The Republican Party was created by Free Soilers and Whigs as well as Democrats who were opposed to the extension of slavery.
1855 Black troops mustered into Confederate service. March 24.
Nominated by the Liberty Party in New York in 1855 for Secretary of State of New York, Frederick Douglass became the first black nominated for a state office.
Samuel R. Ward wrote "The Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro."
Morris Brown College was founded by John Wesley Gaines. It opened in Atlanta, Ga.
1856 Booker T. Washington born a slave in Franklin County, Virginia, April 5.
Granville T. Woods, inventor of industrial appliances, born. April 23.
Wilberforce University founded by Methodist Episcopal Church. Aug.30
1856 Henry McNeal Turner was appointed the first black chaplain in the U.S. Army.
1857 Dred Scott decision by the United States supreme Court opened federal territory to slavery and ruled against (denied) citizenship to AfricanBlack Americans. Mary 6th.
Frederick Douglass, Feb 16th, elected President of Freedom Bank and Trust.
Dred Scott and his family were freed by the new owner, Taylor Blow, May20.
1858 Daniel Hale Williams, called the "Father of Negro Hospitals" born in Hollidayburg, Pennsylvania. Jan. 18.
Twelve whites and thirty-four Negroes attended John Brown's anti-slavery convention in Chatham, Canada. May 8.
Charles W. Chestnutt, Black pioneer novelist, born, June 20.
Alonzo Franklin Herndon, the founder and first President of Atlanta Life Insurance Company was born in Walton County, Georgia June 26, 1858.
Lecompton, Kansas constitution, sanctioning slavery, rejected. Aug. 2.
William Wells Brown published The Escape, first play written by an American Black.
1859 Henry 0. Tanner, world famous artist, born in Pittsburgh. June 21.
John Brown met for last time with Frederick Douglass at an old quarry in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. Aug. 19. A secret meeting was held on Aug 20th in a stone quarry near Chambersburg, PA, between John Brown, a White radical abolitionist and Frederick Douglass, a former slave who became an abolitionist, author and orator. Brown tried to recruit Douglass for his Virginia raid on the U. S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA., but Douglass advised against it. Brown and 18 followers captured the arsenal on Oct 17th but were later trapped. He was convicted on charges of treason and hanged. His actions indirectly helped to bring on the Civil War.
Novel Our Nig by Harriet E. Wilson is the first by an African American woman to be published in the United States.
John Brown raided Harper's Ferry. Oct.16. Sherrad Lewis Leary, Langston Hughes grandfather was with John Brown at Harpers Ferry, Virginia when he was shot and killed.
Haywood Shepherd, a free Negro, was the first person killed by John Browns party of white and Negro raiders at Harpers Ferry in their efforts to free the slaves. Shepherd, while running off to arouse the white people, was shot dead in his tracks.
The last slave ship, Clothilde, landed its cargo of slaves at Mobile, Alabama. These were the last slaves delivered to the U.S.
Samuel Cornish, one of the first men to approach the race problem from an economic point of view, died.
John Brown hanged at Charles Town, West Virginia. Dec.2.
1860 George Washington Carver born in Diamond Grove, Missouri.
Abraham Lincoln elected President. Nov. 6.
South Carolina declared herself an "independent commonwealth." Dec.18.
There were 487,000 free Negroes in the United States, some of whom owned slaves. C. D. Wilson estimates that there were 6,230 Negro slaveholders. The tax returns of Charleston, S. C., for 1860 showed 132 Negro slave-holders with 390 slaves. The Negro Slave-holders, like the white ones, fought to keep their chattels in the Civil War. There is no record of how many of these "slaves" were known family members they had acquired, because they were still counted as "property."
1861 The Civil War Started.
Robert Smalls (Union Navy pilot) watching preparations for the attack on Fort Sumter, said "this, boys. is the dawn of freedom for our race ." April 10.
Victoria E. Matthews noted social worker and writer was born May 27th in Fort Valley, Georgia. Her family moved to New York City in 1873. After marrying she began writing articles for leading newspapers. Mrs. Matthews was interested in race advancements and her efforts to support Ida B. Wells led to the foundation of the Womens Loyal Union of New York City. She later focused on the well being of children and young women. The fruits of her labor culminated in her establishing the White Rose Mission providing Black girls with opportunities to learn practical skills and self-help. She died in March of 1907 of TB at age 45.
Confederates attacked Fort Sumter. April 12.
Lincoln issued proclamation calling for 75, 000 volunteers from the states. April 15
Loyal Black volunteers were not accepted when the first call for troops was made.
Clara Barton with five Black girls gave aid to the wounded in the passage through Baltimore, April 21.
General B. F. Butler refused to return three escaped slaves as they were "contraband of war." May24.
General George B. McClellan, Ohio Department, issued orders to suppress any Black attempts at insurrection. May 26.
Robert L. Smith, member of the Texas Legislature during Reconstruction, was born Jan 8th in Charleston, SC. In 1885, he moved to Texas and was elected to the Texas House of Representatives in 1894. He was re-elected in 1896 representing Colorado County. He was the last Black man to serve in the Texas legislature during Reconstruction. Mr. Smith established the Farmers Improvement Society of Texas which founded and operated The Farmers Agricultural College at Ladonia, Texas.
Black Mass Meeting offered to raise an army of 50, 000 men and that the women would serve as nurses, etc. May31,
Hampton Institutes first day, with Mary S Peake, as the first Black teacher. Aug.17.
The Secretary of the Navy authorized the enlistment of Black slaves later in the year. Sept, 25,
1862 President Lincoln recommended to Congress gradual, compensated emancipation. March 6.
United States Senate passed bill abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia. April 4.
Robert Smalls, Black pilot, sailed armed Confederate steamer, the Planter, out of Charleston, South Carolina and presented her to the United States Navy, May 13.
Liberia recognized as a free nation by the United States. June 3.
Ida B. Wells born 7/6/1862 in Holy Springs, MS. She will become a journalist and antilynching advocate.
Lincoln recommended aid to states abolishing slavery. July 14.
The first regular colored troops were enlisted at Leavenworth, Kansas. July 17
Anthony Burns, Baptist clergyman whose capture as a fugitive slave caused a riot in Boston, died. July 27.
Charlotte Forten, Black poet and teacher, arrived in St. Helena, South Carolina, to teach blacks. Oct.29.
First African Methodist Episcopal Church established at New Bern, North Carolina. Dec.27
1863 President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. Jan, 1. The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on this day by President Lincoln. This historic document led to the end of slavery in the United States during the Civil War. It declared freedom for all slaves in all areas of the Confederacy that were still in rebellion against the Union. The proclamation also provided the use of Blacks in the Union Army and Navy. As a result, it greatly influenced the Norths victory. The American Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 when issued "freed" those slaves whom Abraham Lincoln had no power to free, and permitted the continued enslavement of those whom he had the power to free. On Jun 19th, the news of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation reached Texas. The January 1, 1863 proclamation stated that slaves in states still in rebellion would be freed. The day is celebrated in Texas and many other states as "Juneteenth."
The War Department authorized Massachusetts governor to recruit black troops, The Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers was the first Black regiment raised in the North. Jan.26.
Booker T. Washington, born in a Virginia slave cabin. After working in West Virginia salt mines he taught school in an old church, then opened Tuskegee Institute in 1881.
Two black infantry regiments, First and Second , South Carolina, captured and occupied Jacksonville, Florida, causing panic along the Southern seaboard. March 10.
Confederate Congress passed resolution which branded Black troops and their officers criminals; thus captured Black soldiers could be put to death or slavery, May 1
Eight Black regiments played important role in the siege of Port Hudson which, with the fall of Vicksburg, gave the Union control or the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy into two sections. July 9.
The New York City Draft Riots were the bloodiest in American history- July 13-17
The Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers made a charge on Fort Wagner in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, At least one member, William Carney, of the all-black regiments won the Congressional Medal of Honor for his bravery, July 18.
Kelly Miller, author and educator. born. July 18.
Dr. Mary Church Terrell, first president of the National Association of Colored Women, born Sept, 23.
William Carney was the first black soldier to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1864 Famous Battle of Fort Pillow and the massacre of Black troops after its surrender. April 12.
In a duel between USS Kearsage and CSS Alabama off the coast of France. a Black sailor, Joachim Pease, displayed "marked coolness," and won the Congressional Medal of Honor. Jun 19.
Fugitive slave laws repealed. June 28.
Maryland constitution amended to abolish slavery. July 7.
Although he himself was not certain of actual date, George Washington Carver celebrated his birthday on this date. July 12.
New Orleans Tribune began publishing as the first daily Black newspaper in French and English. Oct.114. La Tribune (The Tribune) on Oct 4th 1847 it became one of the first Black newspapers published in the United States.
Richard B. Harrison, featured actor who created the role of "De Lawd" in Green Pastures, born. Aug, 28.
Congress passed a bill equalizing for the first time the pay, arms, equipment and medical services of Black troops.
Charles Young (Colonel), West Point graduate who held the highest rank in his time, born,
"Blind Boone," John W. Boone, a noted musical prodigy, born in Miami, Missouri.
First public school system for Blacks opened in the District of Columbia.
1865 General Lee said that it was "not only expedient but necessary" that the Confederate Army use Black slaves as soldiers. Jan.11.
John S. Rock was the first Black to practice before the United States Supreme Court. Feb, 1.
Henry Highland Garnet was the first Black to preach in the Capitol delivering a sermon on the abolition of slavery. Feb.12
Congress passed a bill giving freedom to wives and children of Black soldiers. March 3
The Freedman's Bureau established by Congress to help the newly emancipated slaves - March 13.
Abraham Lincoln died from wounds received when shot at Ford's Theater by actor John Wilkes Booth. April 15.
Two white regiments and a Negro regiment, the 62nd USCT, fought the last action of the Civil War at White's Ranch, Texas. Sergeant Crocket, a Black believed to have been the last man to shed blood in the War. May 13.
President Andrew Johnson announced his Reconstruction plan. May29. The chosen party by blacks after reconstruction was the Democratic party.
South Carolina abolished slavery. Aug, 27.
Timothy T. Fortune, journalist and founder of the New York Age, born. Oct. 3
Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment which, on ratification, abolished slavery in the United States. Dec. 18.
Fisk University opened. April 20.
The Colored American was the first black newspaper in the south.
Patrick Henry Healy was the first Black to win the Doctor of Philosophy degree whet he passed his final examination in Louvain, Belgium, July26.
Matthew A, Henson, black explorer who accompanied Peary to the North Pole, born in Charles Cityounty, Maryland. August 8.
Edward C. Walker and Charles L. Mitchell were elected to tile Massachusetts House of Representatives thus becoming the first Blacks elected to an American legislative assembly
Four companies of the 54th U. S. Colored Troops became the first Blacks to participate in the inaugural parade.
Ku Klux Klan organized in Tennessee.
Shaw University founded. Shaw University was founded in Raleigh, NC on Nov 21st. Shaw University is a private, Baptist-affiliated liberal arts university. It is one of the nations first Black institutions of higher education.
Howard University founded as Howard Seminary in Washington, D.C. Nov.20.
1866 Military banks were established in New Orleans, Norfolk, Virginia, and Beaufort, S.C. to safeguard black deposits.
Rust College was founded in Holly Springs, MS on Nov 26th under the auspices of the Methodist Church. It is the second oldest college in Mississippi. Rust College serves approximately 1,000 students.
Diamonds were discovered in Africa in 1866.
1867 Talladega and Morehouse College opened. Feb.
Peabody Educational Fund established for the South. Feb. 7
Inventor Alexander Miles invents the first functional elevator. Oct. 11.
Howard University is chartered by Congress in Washington, D.C. The first major African American art gallery was established later at Howard.
Maggie Lena Walker, the first woman bank president in the United States, born in Richmond, Virginia.
Augusta Institute founded Feb 18th, in Augusta, Georgia moves to Atlanta in 1879 as Atlanta Baptist Seminary, assumes name of Rev. Henry Lyman Morehouse in 1913 and becomes known as Morehouse College.
Robert R. Moton, outstanding educator, born, Aug 26.
Charles Henry Turner, biologist, born Feb 3.
James Roberson creates the first lunch pail.
William Still led a successful campaign against segregated streetcars in Philadelphia
Samuel. Ringgold Ward died in the British West Indies.
1868 William Edward Burghardt DuBois born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Feb.23. W.E.B. DuBois activist, writer born Feb 23rd,founding member of the NAACP. 1868. Dr. William E. B. DuBois, one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the first Black man elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters, was born on Feb 23 in Great Barrington, Maine. Dr. DuBois was the founder of the Crises magazine and Pylon Quarterly Review. He was author of numerous books including Dusk of Dawn, an autobiography, The Philadelphia Negro, The Souls of Black Folk: Then and Now; and The Suppression of the African Slave Trade. Dr. DuBois generally was recognized as one of the most incisive thinkers in the U.S. and one of the most profound scholars of his time.
Hampton Institute opened in Hampton, VA on. April 1st.
The Fourteenth Amendment became part of the Constitution. July 28. The amendment granted citizenship to African Americans.
John Hope, African American educator, born. June 2.
Oscar J. Dunn. ex-slave and Union Army Captain,, became Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, the highest elective office then held by a Black American. June 13.
Alabama state statutes made it unlawful to unite Negro and white children in one school.
1869 Will Marion Cook, famed composer, born. Jan. 27.
Jefferson P. Long from Georgia was seated as the first Negro in the House of Representatives.
The American Anti-Slavery Society was dissolved.
Ebenezer Don Carlos Bennett was the first Black to receive an appointment in the diplomatic service when he became Minister to Haiti. April 16.
1870 Fifteenth Amendment adopted, giving the Black the right to vote. March 30.
Bill ("Dusty Demon") Pickett, famed cowboy, was born on Dec 5th in Williamson County, TX. He attained international fame as a rodeo performer and is credited with originating "bulldogging," now known as "steer wrestling". After completing the 5th grade, Pickett was hired as a ranch hand, where he developed his skills in riding and roping. During the 1890s, Pickett and his brothers began the Pickett Brothers Bronco Busters and Rough Riders Show. By 1904 Pickett had gone solo with is act. He later joined the famed Miller Brothers 101 Ranch Wild West Show and remained with them for 25 years. While roping horses, Pickett was kicked in the head by a stallion. He died 11 days later of a fractured skull on April 2, 1932. In 1971 Bill Pickett became the first Black cowboy to be inducted into the National Rodeo Hall of Fame in Oklahoma City. In 1986 he was selected as one of six great Texans for the Texas Sesquicentennial.
Thomas Peterson was the first Black to vote in the United States the day after the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified.
Georgia elected the first black to sit in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Robert Sengstacke. Abbott, founder of the Chicago Defender, born on St. Simon's Island off the coast of Georgia. Nov.24. The Defender was developed with a capital outlay of twenty-five cents.
James W. C. Pennington died.
Benedict College was founded to educate newly freed slaves.
Hiram Rhodes Revels of Mississippi was the first black United States Senator (1870 -71.) Hiram R. Revel, a Republican legislator from Mississippi became the first Black senator in the history of the United States on Feb 23rd. After he retired from politics, he was elected president of ALCORN University near Lorman, MS.
Joseph H. Rainey, of Georgetown, SC, on Oct 19th became the first Black member of the U.S. Congress. In 1862, Rainey was forced to work on fortifications for the Confederate Army in Charleston, SC. He escaped to the West Indies and remained there until the close of the Civil War. He was a delegate to the South Carolina State Constitutional Convention in 1868 and a member of the state Senate in 1870, but resigned to run for a vacant seat in the House of Representatives. On Dec 12 he was sworn in to serve in the US House of Representatives. Rainey filled the seat of Benjamin Franklin Whittemore. He served until March 3, 1879.
George (Little Chocolate) Dixon, the first Black boxer to win a world championship, was born July 29th in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Dixon stood five feet three and one half inches tall and weighed 87 pounds at the beginning of his career. He won the undisputed bantamweight title on June 17, 1890 when he knocked out Nune Wallace in London. Dixon was elected to boxings Hall of Fame in 1956.
Freedman's Bureau expired by law.
1871 James Weldon Johnson, poet, educator, civil rights fighter, first Black consul to Nicaragua, born in Jacksonville, Florida. June 17. James Weldon Johnson born Jun 17th in Jacksonville, FL. Johnsons, as poet, teacher diplomat and civil rights activist, most widely acclaimed work, Lift Every Voice and Sing, is known as the "Black National Anthem." He wrote the song; his brother composed the music. It has inspired many generations. He also published other songs, numerous volumes of poetry and his autobiography. He served as the national secretary for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1920 to 1931, lectured at Fisk and New York Universities and was diplomat to Venezuela, Nicaragua and Azores. In 1925 he was awarded the Spingarn Medal. He died Jun 26, 1938 following an automobile-train accident in Maine.
Fisk Jubilee Singers made their first appearances under the direction of George L. White.
Oscar De Priest, first Black Congressman elected from a northern state (Illinois), born.
1872 Booker T. Washington entered Hampton Institute
Paul Laurence Dunbar, nationally-known poet and short story writer, born in Dayton, Ohio June 27.
T. J. Marshall invents the first fire extinguisher. Oct 26.
John H. Conyers was the first Black admitted to the United States Naval Academy. Oct.21.
P. B. S. Pinchback became Acting Governor of Louisiana on the impeachment of the Governor. Dec 11.
First Black police officer appointed in Chicago.
Charlotte B. Ray, the first Black woman lawyer, graduated from Howard University Law School, she was first woman to graduate from a university law school
William Still published the records of the fugitive slaves in the classic, Underground Railroad.
1873 Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico. March 23.
John W. Work, musician, Back folk singer expert, born. Aug. 6.
W. C. Handy, "Father of the Blues," Composer of the "St. Louis Blues (1920)"born in Florence, Alabama. Nov. 16.
Richard T. Greener, first Black graduate of Harvard University, named professor of metaphysics at the University of South Carolina.
Patrick Francis Healy served as president of Georgetown University until1882.
1874 William C. Nell died. May 25.
Patrick Henry Healy, Black inaugurated as President of Georgetown University, oldest Catholic university in the United States. July33.
1875 Blacks massacred at Hamburg, South Carolina. July 9.
Civil Rights Bill enacted by Congress contained equal accommodations provisions March 1. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, Congress did not pass another piece of civil rights legislation until 1957.
Mary McLeod Bethune, noted educator, born. in Mayesville, South Carolina. July 10. She will become a founder of Bethune-Cookman College.
Oscar Lewis became the first black jockey to win the Kentucky Derby. All fifteen jockeys in the first Kentucky Derby were African American.
Blanche K. Bruce became a member of the United States Senate from Mississippi, the only Black to serve a full term in the Senate. March 15. He was the first black to serve a full-term as a U.S. Senator (1875 - 1881.)
Convention of Colored Newspapermen held in Cincinnati, OH on 8/5/.
A. P. Ashbourne creates the biscuit cutter. Nov. 30.
Carter G. Wood son, scholar and historian, born in New Canton, Virginia, Dec. 19.
Booker T. Washington graduated from Hampton Institute.
1876 B. M. Bannister, Black painter, exhibited and received first prize for his "under the Oaks" at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. July 4
A. Fisher invents the furniture castor, Mar 14.
Edward A. Bounchet received the Doctor of Philosophy degree in physics at Yale University, the first Black awarded the doctorate by an American university.
"Bert" Williams, described by Billboard as "the greatest comedian on the American stage" in the early 1900's. born in the Bahamas.
1877 Meta Vaux Fuller, noted sculptress of the 19th Century, born June 9.
Henry 0. Flipper, born a slave in Georgia, was the first Black graduate from West Point. June 15.
Frederick Douglass appointed Marshal of the District of Columbia by President Rutherford B. Hayes.
Reconstruction ended with the withdrawal of all Union troops from the South.
O. Dorsey invents the first doorstop. Dec 10.
1878 O. Dorsey invents a door knob. Dec 10.
Marshall (Major) W. Taylor, a Negro, was born. He became the fastest bicyclist the world has ever known. He defeated the champions of Europe and America. His greatest feat was the winning of the one-mile motor-paced race in 1 minute, 19 seeonds. He died in 1932 at the age of 54.
Inventor J. R. Winters invents the fire escape ladder. May 7.
1879 William Lloyd Garrison died. May24.
Cetewayo (Chaka), King of Zululand, South Africa, massacred an entire British army sent against him. A few days later he defeated and killed Prince Napoleon, heir to the French throne. Cetewayo taught the Europeans the skirmish line in warfare.
Blanche K. Bruce presided over the United states Senate. Feb.15.
1871 William Ickins, orator, author and equal rights fighter, born. Jan 15.
Frederick Douglass appointed Recorder of Deeds for the District of Columbia. May 17.
Booker T. Washington opened and began his work at Tuskegee Institute, July 4.
1872 William Still the author of the book Underground Railroad, published.
1878 Inventor T. A. Carrington invents a household stove. Jul 25.
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson born May 25th, the famous tap-dancer (who created stair tap dance) and actor, was born in Richmond, Virginia on this day. At age six, he was dancing to earn money. He year 1906 marked Robinsons real start on the road to fame. Dividing his time between night club and stage appearances, he became increasingly popular. He made many motion pictures for major studios, the most popular of his films co-starred Shirley Temple. In 1978 he was posthumously inducted into the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame.
Jack Johnson, the first Black heavyweight champion (4/11/15) of the world, was born March 31 in Galveston TX. Johnson won the crown from Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia on Dec 26th, 1908. Johnson sustained bitter racial controversy as the American public clamored for the former White champion Jim Jefferies, to come out of retirement and recapture the crown. Jefferies agreed, but the "Great White Hope" lost to Johnson. Jack Johnson died in a car accident in North Carolina in 1946.
1880 P. Johnson created the first eye protection device. Nov 2.
Isaac Murphy, perhaps the greatest of all black jockeys, rode three Kentucky Derby winners.
1881 Tuskegee Institute had only one faculty member when it opened. The institute opens with B.T. Washington as its first president.
The state of Tennessee enacted the first Jim Crow Law segregating railroad coaches.
1882 Mrs. Violette A. Johnson, first Black woman admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court, born. July16.
Benjamin Brawley, social historian, born. April 22.
Charlotte Hawkins Brown, founder of the Palmer Institute at Sedalia, North Carolina, born.
Lewis Lattimer creates the light bulb filament. Mar 21. Black inventor Lewis Latimer made an electric light practical for home use in 1789 by developing a light bulb that used a cotton thread filament.
John F. Slater Fund of one million dollars was created for education and uplifting the blacks in the South.
Robert Morris, first Black to practice in the courts of the United States, died. Dec.11.
First Jim Crow railroad car law passed in Tennessee--beginning of modern segregation movement as other Southern states followed,
1883 Shoe lasting machine patented by Jan Matzeliger, American black inventor. March 20.
Spelman College organized in basement of church in Atlanta, Georgia. April 11.
Walter B. Purvis invents the hand held stamp.
Ernest Everett Just, biologist, University professor known for research in chromosome structure in animals and marine eggs, (a.k.a. fertilization and cell division) born. He was awarded the first Spingarn Medal by the NAACP. Aug. 14. Ernest E. Just, internationally known biologist, author and former head of the department of zoology at Howard University Medical School, was born Aug 14th in Charleston SC. He graduated from Dartmouth College, an Ivy League school, magna cum laude and received a Phi Beta Kappa key. He was also the only student to receive special honors in more than one subject. He earned his doctorate degree in zoology and physiology at the University of Chicago. During his career, he had sixty papers published in leading scientific journals and wrote two major books. He was the recipient of many grants and citations including the first Spingarn Medal awarded by the NAACP (1915).
Sojourner Truth died in Battle Creek Michigan. Nov.26.
George Washington Williams wrote a History of the Negro Race in America, the first serious history undertaken by a Negro.
Composer Eubie Blake born, Feb 7.
1884 The Medico-Chirugical Society of. the District of Columbia, oldest Black American medical society. organized. April 24.
Author Alexandre Dumas wrote The Three Musketeers (1884) and The Count or Monte Cristo (1845).
John Roy Lynch, former Congressman, was elected temporary chairman of the Republican convention, the first Black to preside over deliberations of a national political party.
June 3. He became the first African American to deliver a keynote address at a republican convention. Born 9/10/1849.
William Purvis a black inventor, devised a machine for making paper bags.
Willie Johnson patented the mechanical egg beater.
John W. Reed creates the first rolling pen.
Robert Brown Elliott, Reconstructionist, died. Aug. 9.
William Wells Brown died in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Granville T. Wood invented the telephone transmitting device. Dec 2.
1885 Granville T. Woods began inventing in 1885. He made significant contributions in the field of electricity, steam boilers, and an automatic air braker.
Mohammed Ahmed, called the Mahdi, died. As an ex-waiter of the Sudan, he defeated every army that England sent against him, one of which was 11,000 strong. At his death in 1885, he had carved out for himself an empire in Africa, 1600 miles long and 700 miles wide. Among those killed by the Mahdi was the famous English General, "Chinese" Gordon.
The Cuban Giants, organized in 1885, became the first professional Negro baseball team.
Inventors Burridge & Marshman invents the typewriter. Apr 7.
1886 The first electric trolley on the American continent was run by a black, L. Clark Brooks. May 24.
George Washington Carver invents a unique peanut butter making process.
George Douglass Johnson is born 9/10/1886 will become a notable writer.
J. Ricks designs the first horseshoe. Mar 30
Robert F. Fleming, Jr. Invents a unique guitar. Mar 3.
George Washington Cable published a frank treatment of Negro problems in The Silent South.
William Whipper, underground railroad leader, died.
Inventor M. A. Cherry invents the tricycle. May 8.
1887 Sarah Boone creates the ironing board.
Isiah Montgomery founds Mound Bayou, an African American town in Mississippi (8/11/87).
France has Negro cabinet Minister-Severiano de Heredia.
Marcus Moziah Garvey was born on the northern coast of Jamaica in a little town called St. Anns. (Aug 17)
1888 Slavery in Brazil abolished. May 14
Jefferson G. Ish, Jr., educator and insurance executive was born Jan 4th in Little Rock, AR. Mr. Ish was president of Arkansas State Agricultural, Mechanical and Normal College in Pine Bluff from 1915 to 1921. At the time of his death, he was vice-chairman of the board of Supreme Life Insurance Company of America.
The Brazilian (Spain) Emancipation Proclamation of 1888 freed all the slaves on the day of promulgation. Richard Evans was Spains first African American matador.
George Washington Williams was the minister. journalist, lawyer, and politician that wrote A history of the Negro Troops in the War of Rebellion.
1889 Provident Hospital was incorporated in Chicago with the first training school for Black nurses. Jan.23.
Asa Phillip Randolph, labor and civil rights leader was born April 15th in Crescent City, Fl. Mr. Randolph attended Cookman Institute (now Bethune-Cookman College) and later settled in Harlem where he lived until he was 80. Randolph was the first Black leader to apply economic power to improve the condition of Blacks. He organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first major Black union in the U.S. after failing to achieve integration in the American Federation of Labor. He was the first Black president of the AFL-CIO, serving from 1957 until his retirement in 1968. In 1941, Mr. Randolph forced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order No. 8802, expanding the economy of World War II to Black workers and establishing a Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce it. In 1948, he persuaded a reluctant President Harry S. Truman to issue an executive order ending segregation in the military services. Randolph helped organize the March on Washington in 1963, a factor in the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act that outlawed discrimination in public accommodations, employment practices and unions.Asa Philip Randolph, labor leader, born in Crescent City, Florida. April 15.
S. R. Scranton, co-inventor of the curtain rod supports.
Clarence Muse, pioneer film and stage thespian was born Oct 7th in Baltimore, MD. He appeared in the second talking movie over made and in 218 other movies. His career spanned over 60 years. He died on Oct 13th, 1979 at the age of 90 in Perris, California.
Inventors Brody and Surgwar invent the folding chair. Jun 11.
Inventor W. A. Martin patents a unique lock mechanism. Jul 23.
Granville T. Woods invents an automatic cut-off switch. Jan 1.
Inventor J. A. Burr invents the lawn mower. May 19.
Inventor W. H. Richardson invents the baby buggy. Jun 18.
Frederick Douglass appointed United states Minister to Haiti.
1890 W. B. Purvis invents the fountain pen.
Sam T. Jacks play Creoles features African American women as stage performers for the first time
Charles B. Brooks creates the street sweeper. Mar 17.
Ida Gray was the first black woman dentist in the U.S., setting up practice.
1891 Peter Jackson. great Black boxer, fought sixty-one round draw with James J. Corbett. May21.
Inventor John Standard inventsed the refrigerator.
Paul B. Downing builds the first mailbox. Oct 27.
Dr. Louis Tompkins Wright, pioneering surgeon and scientist, was born July 23rd in LaGrange, GA. He received his elementary, secondary and college education at Clark University in Atlanta, Georgia. He received his MD from Harvard Medical College, cum laude, in 1915, raked fourth in his class. In 1917, he was commissioned a lieutenant in the US Army Medical Corps, serving in France during the first World War. After the war, he joined the Medical reserve corps and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Dr Wright was widely known as a surgeon and a scientist. He was also regarded as an authority on head injuries and did much to advance the professional opportunities for Black physicians. He served as chairman of the board of the NAACP for twenty years. In 1928, he became the first Black to be named a police surgeon. Dr. Wright was admitted as a fellow of the American College of Surgeons in 1934, the first Black to gain that distinction since the early days of the organization. In 1940 he was awarded the NAACPs Spingarn Medal.
Georgia, in 1891, became the first state to segregate streetcars.
1892 Luther P. Jackson, Black historian, born in Lexington, Kentucky. July 11.
Andrew J. Beard is issued a patent (8/14/92) for the rotary engine.
Lynchings in the United States reached their peak.
Miles V. Lynk was the founder and publisher of The Medical and Surgical Observer (1892), the first black journal on medicine in the United States.
G. T. Sampson invents the first clothes dryer. Jun 6.
1893 Walter Francis White, long-time Executive Secretary of the NAACP, born in Atlanta, Georgia. July 1.
Thomas W. Stewart invented the mop. Jun 11.
Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performed the world's first successful open heart operation, when he performed the first successful closure of a wound of the heart and pericardium in a stabbing victim at Chicago's Provident Hospital. July 9 (10/14/93).
1894 Inventor Michael C. Harvey in the home lantern. Aug 10.
Dr. Lloyd A. Hall, famous chemist, born June 20th in Elgin, IL. Dr. Hall was senior chemist of the Chicago Board of Health Department from 1916 to 1917. During World War I, he became assistant chief inspector of high explosives in the U. S. Ordnance Department. He later was chief chemist, research, and technical director for Griffith Laboratories, Inc. and specialized in food preservatives and seasonings. He held over 80 patents in food chemistry and authored more than 35 scientific papers. After his retirement, he became a consultant to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Inventor F. J. Loudin invents the key chain. Jan 9.
Freedmans Hospital School of Nursing was founded on this day by Dr. Daniel Hale Williams. Its mission was to give young Blacks the opportunity to receive training in care for the sick and to increase good nursing care for its patients. In 1904, the school was registered in the state of New York and graduate nurses were admitted to the Nurses Association Alumnae of USA. In 1967, Freedmans Hospital and School of Nursing was transferred to Howard University by an act of Congress signed by President John F. Kennedy. In 1969, Howard University College of Nursing was established with Dr. Anna B. Coles as its first dean. By the time the school closed in 1973, 1,700 nurses had graduated from Freedmans Hospital School of Nursing.
1895 Frederick Douglass died in Anacosta Heights, District of Columbia, where his home is now a national shrine - Feb. 20.
Booker T. Washington delivered his famous "Atlanta Compromise (Let Down Your Buckets Where You Are)" address at Cotton Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia. Sept. 15.
William Grant Still. orchestral musician and composer ("Afro-American Symphony") born. May 11.
Charles E. Houston, considered one of the great constitutional lawyers in American history, born.
W. E. B. DuBois received his doctorate degree from Harvard University, the first black to receive this degree from Harvard. June
Ida B. Well compiled the first statistical pamphlet on lynching The Red Record.
Thomas White invented the lemon squeezer. Dec. 8.
1896 United States Supreme Court decision of Plessy v. Ferguson upheld doctrine of "separate but equal." May 18. Under this decision, segregated facilities were not considered unequal nor in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment
National Association of Colored Women organized and founded in Washington, D.C. by Dr. Mary Church Terre11. July 21. Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin was the black American who was a chief organizer and also served as president of the National Federation of Afro-American Women in 1896.
NEHANDA MBUYA(Grandmother) OF ZIMBABWE When the English invaded Zimbabwe in 1896 and began confiscating land and cattle, Nehanda and other leaders declared war. Nehanda also displayed remarkable leadership and organizational skills at a young age. Though dead for nearly a hundred years, Nehanda remains what she was when alive, the single most important person in the modern history of Zimbabwe. She is still referred to as Mbuya (Grandmother) Nehanda by Zimbabwean patriots.
William S. Grant invents the curtain rod supports. Aug 4.
M. Davis designs a unique riding saddle. Oct 6.
W. E. B. DuBois "The Suppression of the African Slave Trade" was published as the first volume in the Harvard Historical Studies Series.
Paul Laurence Dunbar gained national fame for his poem "Lyrics of a Lowly Life."
Elijah McCoy creates the machine lubricating cup. Nov 15. Born 5/2/1844 in Ontario, Canada, Elijah will receive over fifty patents for his practical inventions and whose product bear the distinction of being "the real McCoy."
Inventor C. O. Bailiff invents the shampoo headrest. Oct. 11.
Booker T. Washington received the first honorary degree awarded to a Black by Harvard University.
1897 H. A. Rucker served as Collector of Internal Revenue in Georgia. Nov. 4.
Richard Henry Boyd formed the National Baptist Publishing Board, which issued the first series of Negro Baptist literature ever published.
American Negro Academy is the organization that was formed by black scholars to refute claims of black intellectual inferiority.
J.L. Love invents the first pencil sharpener. Nov 23.
John Mercer Langston of Virginia. soldier, educator, Haitian consul, Congressman, died. Nov. 15.
Elijah Muhammad born in Sandersville, Georgia. He was the leader of the Nation of Islam. He favored separation of Blacks and Whites, and the formation of al all-Black state or territory within the United States. Elijah Muhammad taught his followers to make themselves self-sufficient by establishing their own schools and businesses. He also encouraged Blacks to be thrifty, clean and hardworking. His followers also abstain from alcohol, drugs, pork and tobacco. He died, Feb 25th, 1975 at the age of 78.
J.W. Smith invents the first lawn sprinkler for agricultural purposes.May 4.
Lawrence P. Ray invents the dustpan.
T. Elkin invents the chamber commode. Jan 8.
On this day 10/3/1897 Josephine Riley Matthews is born in Aiken County, SC. She will become a midwife and will deliver more than 1,300 babies, black and white, in rural South Carolina.
W.J. Jackson invented the railroad switch.
Andrew J. Beard, the illiterate inventor, sold the rights to his patent for a railroad car coupler for $50,000 on Feb 20th.
Inventor A. L. Cralle invents the Ice Cream Scoop. Feb 2.
1898 Blanche K. Bruce died in Washington, D.C. March 17.
Bob Cole's "A Trip to Coontown" was the first musical comedy written by a Black for Black talent.
Marshall W. "Major" Taylor, a bicycle racer, was the American sprint champion when he was twenty years old. He held the title "Fastest Bicycle Rider in the World" for 12 years.
The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company was organized by John Merrick and Dr. A. M. Moore in Durham. North Carolina.
Hattie McDaniel, actress, was born on Jun 10th, in Wichita, Kansas. She starred in radio, television and motion pictures. Ms. McDaniel started her career as a singer. She made her motion picture debut in 1931, and appeared in some 300 films. She became the first Black honored with an Oscar by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for her performance as Mammy in Gone With the Wind (1940). She died in San Fernando Valley, California on Oct 26, 1952, In 1975, she was entered into the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame, posthumously.
Paul Robeson is born April 9th in Princeton, NJ. Become internationally known actor and singer.
Inventor Lydia D. Newman patents a unique hairbrush. Nov 15.
1899 Edward Kennedy ("Duke") Ellington born in Washington, D.C. April 4.
Fagan, one of the most daring leaders of the Filipinos against the American troops in the Philippines was an American Negro deserter. A short story based on his life by Rowland Thomas, noted American writer, won first prize of $10,000 a nation-wide contest in 1914.
T. Grant invents the golf tee. Dec 12.
John Burr invented the lawn mower in 1899.
Joseph Dickinson received a patent in 1899 for the musical instrument called the pianola.
Douglass Hospital, named after a famous black leader, Frederick Douglass, was the first hospital, owned and operated by African Americans to serve all people and ethnic groups, regardless of race, founded west of the Mississippi, in Kansas City, KS.
Inventor L. R. Johnson invents the bicycle frame. Oct 10.
Cook invents an automatic fishing device. May 30.
A. C. Richard creates an insect destroyer gun. Prelude to insecticide dispenser. Feb 26.
Inventor L. C. Bailey invents the folding bed. Jul 18.
1900 Louis Armstrong born in New Orleans. July 4.
James Augustine Healy died in Northland, Maine. Aug. 5
New York State passed legislation providing that no one be denied public education because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The first Pan African Congress was held in London, England.
Ethel Waters, entertainer, was born Oct 31 in Chester, PA. She married at age 12 and still went to school. Her first employment was in a Philadelphia hotel where she worked as a chambermaid and laundress for $4.75 a week. One night out on Halloween she went to a nightclub on Juniper Street. There, protected by a mask, she was persuaded to sing. Two neighborhood boys who were excited about her talent encouraged her to turn professional and at the age of 17 she appeared at the Lincoln Theater in Baltimore. After her first Broadway appearance in 1927, in Africana, a Negro revue, Ms. Waters began to intersperse her theater and nightclub work. Her autobiography, His Eyes Is on the Sparrow, written in collaboration with Charles Samuels, won praise for the outspoken quality of its language and subject matter. She performed on radio and television (Beulah). Some of her memorable stage roles include Cabin in the Sky and A Member of a Wedding (for which she won the Drama Critics Award). They were recreated for film. She died on Sep 9, 1977 at Chadsworth, Georgia.
James Weldon Johnson writes "Lift Every Voice and Sing;" which becomes the "Negro national anthem"
Booker T. Washington forms the National Negro Business League (1900)
Black artist Henry O. Tanner received the Medal of Honor at the Paris exposition.
Charles W. Chestnutt published his first novel, "The House Behind the Cedars".
1901 Hiram R. Revels died in Holy Springs, Mississippi. Jan. 16
William M. Trotter founded the Boston Guardian, a militant newspaper which advocated absolute equality for Blacks.
Frederick Douglass Patterson born Oct 10th. He will later found the United Negro College Fund.
General A. Dodds, A Senegalese, was Frances best known soldier prior to the first World War. In 1901, as senior general he commanded for a brief time the Allied Army of white Americans, Germans, British, French, and Japanese against the Boxers in China. The Germans, unable to tolerate him, hurriedly sent out a field-marshal.
John Wesley Work, composer, historian and educator was born Jun 15th in Tullahoma, TN. Dr. Work taught at Fisk University where he directed the Fisk Jubilee Singers from 1947 to 1956 and served as chairman of the music department from 1950 to 1957. He was the author of American Negro Songs. Some of Dr. Works compositions include: My Lord What A Morning, Go Tell It On The Mountain, and Theres A Meetin Here Tonight.
George A. White of North Carolina was the last black man to sit in congress in the post-Reconstruction period. His term ended in 1901.
Blacks became the worlds lightweight and welterweight boxing champions.
From 1900 to 1915, 1,267 Blacks were lynched, according to records kept at Tuskegee Institute.
1902 Birth of Langston Hughes.
The first recording of black music is recorded by the Victor Talking Machine Company. They recorded The Dinwiddle Quartet on Nov 12th.
Marian Anderson, vocalist, born Feb 17th. The famous African-American contralto singer accepted the invitation of the Daughters of the American revolution to sing at the organizations Constitution Hall in an unsegregated war benefit on Oct 5th, 1942. In 1939 Ms Anderson was not permitted to perform at the hall because of her race.
1903 Countee Cullen, distinguished Black poet of the twenties, born. May 30.
W. E. B. DuBois published his Souls of Black Folk.
Tony Simpson, a humble Louisiana Negro, posing as Prince Antonio Apache of Arizona, became the social lion of the elite of New York and Philadelphia in 1903. Among those who feted him in their drawing rooms or in the Golden Horse-Shoe at the Metropolitan Opera were Mrs. John Jacob Astor, Mrs. Howard Gould, and Mrs. John R. Drexel. Even President Theodore Roosevelt was taken in. The latter consulted "Prince Apache," several times on Indian affairs at the White House. The "Prince" was tall and imposing, dressed like a Beau Brummel, and had the manners of a Chesterfield. He used to wear a wig attached to a tuft of his own wooly hair.
The musical "In Dahomey", by Bert Williams & George Walker opens on Broadway, an unprecedented work written, performed and produced by African Americans
Virginia Proctor Powell is born in Wilkinsburg, PA. She will be the first African American woman to become a librarian.
Scott Joplins Opera "A Guest of Honor" was presented in the city of St. Louis.
1904 Dr. Charles R. Drew, "Father of Blood Plasma Bank," born in Washington, D.C. June 3.
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche born in Washington. D.C. (Detroit, MI) Aug 7. He will become the first African American Nobel Prize winner.
Representing black American women, Mary Church Terrell, addressed the International Congress of Women in Berlin, speaking in German, English, and French.
George Poage became the first black athlete to compete in the Olympic games.
1905 Group of Black intellectuals organized the so-called Niagra Movement at a meeting near Niagra Falls. July 11-13.
Clara McBride Hale born April 1st. Famous African American childrens rights activist.
Tippu Tip, died, a Negro trader in slaves and ivory, from Zanzibar, East Africa, was the first civilized man to penetrate the center of Africa. He explored territory nearly as large as the United States. Stanley, Weismann, Cameron, and other white explorers followed in his path. He died very rich.
Robert S. Abbott began publication of the Chicago Defender, the most influential and militant Black newspaper.
Georgia was the first southern state to segregate its public parks.
Paul Laurence Dunbar publishes Lyrics of Sunshine and Shadow; his masterful use of black dialect in poetry gains him a national reputation in the US.
Scott Joplins "Maple Leaf Rag" is a hit, receiving critical acclaim from the white press
Alonzo Franklin Herndon founded the Atlanta Mutual Insurance Association which evolved into the present Atlanta Life Insurance Company.
Madam C. J. Walker invents the straightening comb.
1906 Paul Laurence Dunbar the poet died in Dayton, Ohio. Feb 9.
The Atlanta race riot resulted in the death of twelve people. Sept.22. The riots cripple the city for days. Many blacks leave the city, and the Atlanta Civil League is formed to improve race relations.
Philadelphias Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts exhibits Portraits from Mirrors, the sculpture of twenty-eight year-old Meta Vaux Warrick. Meta was born 6/9/77 in Philadelphia, PA became a widely acclaimed sculptor.
Alpha Phi Alpha. the first Black Greek letter society was organized as a fraternity. Dec. 4
1907 Alaine L. Locke of Harvard was the first Black American Rhodes Scholar.
Jack Johnson defeated Tommy Burns for the heavy-weight championship at Sydney, Australia.
1908 Thurgood Marshall born (78/2/08) in Baltimore, Maryland. Nov. 29. He will become the first African American Supreme Court Justice.
Allen Allensworth filed the site plan for the African American township of Allensworth, CA on 8/4/08.
Henry O. Tanners paintings of black life are featured in a one-man show in New York City, the first by an African American (1908)
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., congressman and pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem was born Nov 29th in New Haven, CT. Powell earned his bachelors degree at Colgate University in 1930 and his masters degree at Columbia University in 1932. IN 1938 he received his degree of Doctor of Divinity from Shaw University. He assumed the leadership of his fathers church in 1937. In 1941, with the help of his congregation and his personal popularity, he became the first Black elected to serve on the New York City Council. In 1944, he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives becoming the first Black to represent an Eastern district and the third to represent any district since the Reconstruction. Powell served as chairman of the House Committee of Education and Labor (1960-1967) and was one of the most influential political figures of his time. Powell was defeated for re-election by Charles Rangel in 1970. He died Apr 4th, 1972 in Miami, Fl., from complications following prostate surgery. His body was cremated Apr 10th after his funeral and the ashes were scattered over the island of Bimini in the Bahamas.
Dr. C. Tavares, died, an African Negro. was the private physician to King. Carlos I of Portugal until the latter's death in 1908.
The Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. was founded at Howard University.
The first meeting of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses was held oat St. Marks Methodist Church on Aug 25th in New York City. During the early 1900s, it was very hard for Black women seeking admission to the countrys nursing schools to be accepted. In the South, none were open to them; in the North, only a few adopted them. Therefore, this professional body was established because of the growing concern among Black nurses to improve their condition.
1909 NAACP founded, on Lincoln's centennial birthday, in New York City after a savage Springfield, Illinois, lynching. Feb.12. (NAACP) founded in for the purpose of improving the conditions under which African Americans live (1909)
Commander Robert B. Perry reached the North pole accompanied by his "Negro assistant," Matthew H. Henson. April 6. 1909. On April 6, Matthew Henson, a New York Negro. was the first of a party of six to do so. He was in 1943 the only human being alive to have stood there. For 2234 years human beings had been trying to reach the top of the world. Thousands of lives and millions of dollars were lost in the attempt. The first Arctic explorer was Pytheas, a Greek, who perished in the attempt in 325 B. C.
Miss Caroline Phelp-Stokes of New York, who created a fund for the education of Blacks, died.
New York Amsterdam News is the l;argest black newspaper in the country. Founded Dec 4th in New York by James H. Anderson.
Nannie Burroughs founded the National Training School for Women at Washington, D. C.
William R. Cole, the jazz drummer known professionally as "Cozy Cole", was born Oct 17th in east Orange, NJ. He began playing professionally in his teens and made his first record at the age of 20, with Jelly Role Mortons Red Hot Peppers. During the 1930s he played in the bands of Blanche Calloway, Benny Carter and Willie Bryant. Cozy Cole joined Cab Calloways band in 1939, where he made several records on which his drumming was featured. He joined CBS radio in 1943 to play in Raymond Scotts Orchestra, becoming one of the first Black musicians on a network musical staff. In 1958 Cole made a solo record Topsy that become an unexpected hit, the only drum solo to sell more than a million records. Cole also played with Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman and Jonah Jones.
1910 W. E. B DuBois started Crisis as the official organ of the NAACP.
The permanent body of the NAACP was organized in 1910.
Matthew H. Henson, adventurer and explorer became the first man to reach the North Pole on April 7th. When Naval Admiral Robert E. Peary made his second expedition to the Arctic region in 1891, he took Henson along as a friend. Henson became an expert in handling the equipment, dog sleds and in dealing with the Eskimos, In 1900, 1902, and 1905 Peary made repeated trips to reach the North Pole accompanied by Henson. In February 1909, they started on an expedition from Cape Sheridan, Greenland. Finally, on April 7th, 1909, 60 miles from their goal, exhausted and suffering from snow blindness, Matthew Henson sallied forth and became the first man to reach the North Pole. He published his account of the expedition in his book, A Negro Explorer at the North Pole.
National Urban League organized in New York City. April.
1911 National Urban League founded 10/13/11) to help African Americans adjust to city life after migrating from the South to urban centers in the North. The National Urban League was founded by Booker T. Washington.
The first black dolls produced were distributed by the National Negro Doll Company founded by the Reverend Richard Boyd.
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper poet and abolitionist, died on Feb 22 a age 86. She wrote one of the first published sort stories by a Black author. Some of her best poems include Eliza Harris, The Slave Mother and Bible Defense of Slavery. Harper lectured for the Anti-Slavery Society of Maine. She composed a hymn, Freedoms Battle, in protest of the U.S. Supreme Courts Dred Scot Decision (1857) which had supported slavery.
Mahalia Jackson, renowned gospel singer was born on Oct 26th in New Orleans, LA. Ms. Jackson became known as the Queen of Gospel Music because she brought traditional gospel to large audiences transcending Black churchgoers through recordings, radio performances and concert tours in America and abroad. Her records sold millions. From September 1954 to February 1955 she had her own program each Sunday night over the CBS radio network. She sang with a rich, deep contralto voice in a syncopated beat. Her style of performing was compared to that of the great blues singer Bessie Smith. However, during her life she insisted that gospel songs were not to be compared to blues because they really consisted of "making a joyful noise unto the Lord" - Psalms 100:1.
1912 W. C. Handy published the first blues composition, Memphis Blues. Sep 27. W. C. Handy is responsible for the commercialization of blues that began in 1912.
Henry is born Dec 2nd in Columbus, OH. He will become the only boxer o hold three boxing titles simultaneously.
"The Railroad Porter" was the first black movie produced by blacks.
1913 Harriet Tubman died in Auburn, New York. March 10. She helped more than 300 blacks escape from slavery.
1200 inventions were patented by Black inventors since 1863.
Noble Drew Ali founded the first mosque in the United States in Newark, NJ.
The Cakewalk, based on African-American plantation dances, becomes an American dance craze (1913)
James Weldon Johnson wrote the poem "Fifty Years" commemorating the anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Rosa Parks born Feb 4th in Tuskegee, AL. Rosa L. Parks civil rights heroine was awarded a Spingarn Medal in 1979. She was the catalyst in the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-56, which led the way for the Civil Rights Movement.
1914 Joe Louis (Barrow) born in Lexington. Alabama. May 13
The Spingarn Medal awards were instituted by Joel B . Spingarn, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the NAACP, to call to the attention of the American people the existence of distinguished merit and achievement among colored Americans. It is traditionally presented at the Annual NAACP Convention.
Bert Williams was considered to be the first major black star to appear in films. Bert Williams headlines for the Ziegfeld Follies becoming one of the most popular entertainers in the country. The Chicago Defender calls him the "Worlds Greatest Comedian" (1914)
Darktown Jubilee, released by an independent black film company, was the first film to star the African American actor - Bert Williams.
Garrett A. Morgan invents the gas mask. Oct 13.
Ralph Waldo Ellison born March 1st in Oklahoma City, OK. He will later write The Invisible Man, which will win many awards.
1915 Professor Ernest F, Just received the first Spingarn Medal for researches in the field of biology. Feb. 12.
Mifflin Wistar Gibbs dies in Little Rock, AR. Mr. Gibbs was editor and publisher of the Mirror of the Times, the first African American newspaper in California. He was also the first African American elected to the position of municipal judge.
Senator Henri Lemery, Negro, French Cabinet Minister until 1918.
Guinn v. United States declared "grandfather clauses" in the Maryland and Oklahoma constitutions null and void. June 21.
Association of the Study of Negro Life and History founded by Dr. Carter G. Woodson. Sept. 9.
Booker T. Washington died in Tuskegee, Alabama. Nov.14.
Private Stephen Little, Co O, 12th Infantry. killed in action. Nogales, Arizona; military camp named in his honor. Nov. 26.
Dr. Robert Russa Moton elected principal. Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Dec. 20.
About 2,000,000 Southern blacks moved to Northern industrial centers after the "great migration" began in this year. The migration period (1910-1930) was to seek employment in the war industries. This exodus was known as the Great Migration.
The NAACP leads protests against Birth of a Nation (1915)
1916 Major Charles Young received Spingarn Medal for services in Liberia. Feb.22.
Captain of the Navy, S. H. Mortenol, an unmixed Negro, commanded the Air Defenses of Paris from 1916-1918, with 205 planes and 10,000 white men under him. It was he who located and destroyed the Big Berthas that used to bombard Paris from a distance of sixty to eighty miles.
Carter G. Woodson founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH.)
The NAACP presents Angelina Grimkes play, Rachel, the first successfully staged drama by a black playwright (1916)
James Weldon Johnson became the first person appointed field secretary and organizer for the NAACP in the south.
1917 United States entered World War I
Harry T. Burleigh, composer, pianist, singer, awarded Spingarn Medal for excellence in the field of creative music. May 16
Fannie Lou Hammer born in Montgomery County MS Oct 6th. She became founder of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
Gwendolyn Brooks, poet and novelist, was born on Jun 7th in Topeka, Kansas. She is author of more than 30 books of poetry, including A Street in Bronzeville, In the Mecca, and Family Pictures. Brooks received her first national recognition when she won the Pulitzer Prize in poetry for Annie Allen in 1950 - the first Black writer to receive this award. In 1958, she succeeded Cal Sandburg as poet laureate of Illinois. She publish her first poem "Eventide" at age 13.
Julius Rosenwald Fund for Education, Scientific and Religious Purposes was organized. Oct. 30
Six hundred Blacks were commissioned officers during World War I. Eight hundred were non-commissioned officer. Approximately 300,000 African Americans served during the war.
Ossie Davis, actor, playwright, producer, director and civil rights activist was born Dec 18th in Cogdell, GA. He grew up in Waycross, GA, where he was first impelled to become a writer when he viewed the harassment inflicted upon his father by White bigots who tried to "keep the Negro in his place." He enrolled at Howard University where he met Dr. Alain Locke, a philosophy professor and drama critic, who encouraged him to write, work and learn about the theater by working in New York with off-Broadway groups after he finished college. Too impatient to wait until graduation. Davis left Howard at the end of his junior year for New York City, where he joined the Rose McClendon Players. He was inducted into the US Army in 1942 and spent much of World War II in Liberia and West Africa until he was transferred to Special Services, where he wrote and produced several shows. After his discharge he returned to New York cultivating his talents for theater. He authored the play Purlie Victorious, which opened at the Cort Theater on Broadway in September, 1961. Davis also starred in Purlie, which was directed by Howard DaSilva. Davis was inducted to the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame in 1975. He currently co-stars s Judge Harry Roosevelt in the CBS_TV series "The Client." Davis appeared in Spike Lees hit films Jungle Fever. Do The Right Thing, School Daze, and was a narrator in Lees Malcolm X. Over the years, he has been involved in the Civil Rights Movement. He served on the advisory board of CORE, and supported the NAACP, the Urban League, SCLC and other Black organizations.
Janet Collins born Mar 7th. Becomes a prima ballerina and the first African American to perform on the stage at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City.
Edward A. Johnson first Black to be elected to the New York State Assembly. Nov.23
Emmett J. Scott was appointed special assistant to the Secretary of War.
Ragtime represented a blending of West African and Europe musical form.
1918 William Stanley Braithwaite. poet, literary critic and editor, received Spingarn medal for distinguished achievement in literature. May 5.
National Liberty Congress of Colored Americans petitioned Congress to make lynching a federal crime. July 29.
Charles White born April 2nd in Chicago, IL. He will be an award winning artist.
First soldiers in American army to be decorated for bravery in France were two Blacks, Henry Johnson and Needham R. Roberts.
Ella Fitzgerald, singer, born April 25th. Ms Fitzgerald is internationally known ad respected as the "first lady of song." She began her brilliant career in 1938 with a hit recording of A Tisket, A Tasket. She is lauded by her peers as "the leading jazz interpreter of popular songs."
Marcus Garvey established "The Negro World" a weekly newspaper devoted to the interest of the Negro race. Aug 17.
Blaise Diage, Negro, Frances Cabinet Minister
World War I ended on November 11. (11/11:11am)
Joseph Hunger Dickinson invents the record play arm. Jan 8.
1919 First Pan African Congress, organized by W. E. B. DuBois, met at Grand Hotel in Paris. Feb. 19-21.
Ellen Stewart is born Nov 7, 1919. She will become an actor and founder of La Mama experimental Theater Club.
Roy deCarava is born Dec 9th. He will become the first African American photographer to be awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship.
Archibald K. Grimke, former U.S. Consul in Santo Domingo. author and president of the NAACP branch in the District of Columbia for seventy years, received the Spingarn Medal for distinguished service to his race and country. June 27.
There were eighty three lynchings, the KKK held more than two hundred public meetings across the country, and there were twenty-five major race riots in the country this year.
Charles Gilpin managed the Lafayette Theater Company in Harlem, and played in "Abraham Lincoln" on Broadway.
As a result of the interracial strife that produced approximately 25 race riots, James Weldon Johnson labeled the summer of 1919 the "Red Summer".
1920 W. E. B. DuBois awarded Spingarn Medal for his achievements in scholarship, as editor of Crisis, and for founding and calling of the Pan African Congress. June 1
There were sixty-five female African American physicians in the United States.
Charles Rangel born 6/11/20 will become a congressman in New York City defeating Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
Powell, a Baptist minister and politician, served twenty-one years in the House of Representatives and five years as chair of the House Committee on Education and Labor.
National Convention of Marcus Garvey's Universal Improvement Association (UNIA) opened in Liberty Hall in Harlem; Garvey's black nationalist movement reached its peak during this year. Aug. 1.
Emperor Jones, by O'Neill, opened at the Provincetown Theatre starring Charles Gilpin in the title role. Nov. 3.
The Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. was founded at Howard University.
Gen. Daniel "Chappie" James born Feb 11th in Pensacola, Fl. USAs 1st Black four star general. He was the first African American pilot to distinguish himself in the Korean War.
The year 1920 is generally designated as the beginning of the "Harlem Renaissance."
Sterling Brown wrote during the 20s . He was advisor to the Federal Writers Project during the Depression.
Mamie Smith made the first blues record, "Crazy Blues."
1921 Charles S. Gilpin, actor, received the Spingarn Medal for his performance in the title role of Eugene O'Neill's drama, Emperor Jones. June 30.
Harry Pace establishes Pace Phonograph Corporation the first record company to be owned and operated by African Americans.
Marcus Garvey inaugurated provisional president of the "Republic of Africa." Aug. 31.
Constance Baker Motley, the first Black woman federal judge, was born on this day in New Haven, CT. She was the ninth of twelve children. Ms. Motley attended elementary and high schools in New Haven. She received an AB degree in economics from New York University in 1943,and bachelor of laws degree in June 1946, from Columbia University Law School, she began working with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund as a law clerk for Thurgood Marshall. In 1948 she was admitted to the New York State Bar. Her career is incredible being a pioneer in the following: In Feb 1964 she became the first Black Woman to be elected to the New York State Senate. In 1966 she became the first woman of any ethnicity to serve as president of the Borough of Manhattan. After being appointed the first Black woman federal judge in 1966, she served from 1966 to 1982; as chief judge 1982 to 1986; as senior judge from 1986.
Sadie Alexander became the first black woman to obtain a Ph.D. degree in Economics, in 1921.
Whitney Moore Young Jr., former executive director of the National Urban League, and civil rights leader, was born on July 31st in Lincoln ridge, KY. He received his BS degree from Kentucky State College (now Kentucky State University) with the intention of going into medicine. After serving in World War II as a first sergeant, and observing first-hand the problems of race relations in America, he changed his mind about a career as a physician and decided to go into social work. Young received his MA degree in social work from the University of Minnesota in 1947 and went to work immediately for the St. Paul and Omaha Urban Leagues as director of industrial relations from 1947-1953. In 1954, he became the dean of the School of Social work of Atlanta University. Young served on several Presidential commissions and worked closely with President Lyndon Johnson. His work kept him from protest demonstrations, sit-ins and picket lines. Nevertheless, Young made a point of staying abreast of the ideas and concepts that move young Black America. He was a confidant of Malcolm X and was a featured speaker at the 1970 congress of African Peoples in Atlanta. Young wrote several books including To Be Equal and Beyond Racism. He died March 11, 1971 while swimming in Lagos, Nigeria apparently of a heart attack at the age of 49.
The doctor of philosophy degree was awarded for the first time to Black women: Evan B. Dykes, English at Radcliffe; Sadie T. Mossell, Economics at the University of Pennsylvania; Georgiana R. Simpson, German at the University of Chicago.
"Orys Creole Trombone" and "Society Blues," both recorded in 1921 by Jazz band leader Edward "Kid" Ory, are the first known jazz records by a black American jazz musician.
1922 Colonel Charles Young died in Liberia. Jan. 87. Col. Charles Young, first Black to achieve that rank in the U. S. Army, died Jan 8th in Lagos, Nigeria while on duty as a military attaché.
Carmen McRae, jazz singer born April 8th in NYC.
Congress passed the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill. Jan.26
Mary B. Talbert, former president of the National Association of Colored Women, awarded Spingarn Medal for service to the women of her race and the restoration of the Frederick Douglass home. June 20.
Richard B. Spikes invents the first automatic gear shift. Feb 8.
Frederick Douglass Memorial Home in Washington, D.C. dedicated as museum. Aug. 12.
1923 Spingarn Medal awarded to George Washington Carver, head of the Department of Research, and director of the Experiment Station at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. for distinguished research in agricultural chemistry. Sept. 4.
Dr. Joseph Rock, United States Department of Agriculture discovered a hitherto unknown Negro race, the Nakhis, 200,000 in number, in Southern China
First Catholic seminary for the education of Black priests was dedicated in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Sept. 16
Garrett A. Morgan invents the first traffic light. Nov 23. Garrett A. Morgan invented the traffic light on Jan 23rd. In 1912, he developed a gas mask. Many police departments and fire departments throughout the United States became equipped with Morgans gas mask. In 1916 his gas mask enabled rescuers to free more than 20 workers who were trapped a smoke-filled tunnel in Cleveland.
Bessie Smith, Feb 17th, blues singer made first record for Columbia Records. She had been a prize-winning roller skater as a teenager.
The first black veterans hospital was established Tuskegee, Alabama
Fritz Pollard, was the first black coach in the National Football League.
United States Department of labor estimated that almost 500,000 Blacks left the South during tile previous twelve months. Oct.24.
Charles S, Johnson began to edit Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life for the Urban League.
1924 Roland Hayes, singer, given Spingarn Medal for his great artistry through which he "so finely interpreted the beauty and charm of the Negro folk song" and won for himself a place as soloist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. July 1.
Fletcher Henderson, first musician to make name with jazz band, opened at Roseland Ballroom on Broadway. Oct. 3.
Josephine Baker played in Sissle and Blakes "Chocolate Dandies". She went to Paris in 1925, and later starred in the FolliesFolies Bergeres.
Jessie Redmond Fauset published the novel "There is Confusion"
1925 Charles Drew of Washington, D.C. won Amherst College Ashley Grid Trophy for being most valuable member of the 1924 squad. Jan.1.
Rosa Guy born in Trinidad, West Indies. Become a notable writer.
The nicknames "Queen of the Moaners," "Texas Nightingale," and "Chicago Cyclone" were associated with blues singers in the 1920s.
"Appearances" was the first full-length drama written by a black playwright to reach Broadway.
Alain Locke was an essayist, critic, and philosopher of the Harlem renaissance. He published the "The New Negro" an anthology of Renaissance work.
Adelbert H. Roberts elected to Illinois state legislature- -first Negro since reconstruction days. Jan.10.
Greewood, Mississippi, ministers and prominent businessmen led mob which lynched two Blacks. March 14.
Countee P. Cullen, New York University poet, awarded honorary Phi Beta Kappa key. March 28.
Mob at Oscella, Louisiana, flogged and shot minister for "preaching equality." April 18,
A. Phillip Randolph organized Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a labor union. May 8.
Harry T. Burleigh honored by Temple Emmanuel Congregation of New York City at end of 25th year as soloist. May 16.
Sammy Davis Jr., the worlds greatest entertainer, was born on Dec 8th in Harlem, NY. He was a complete variety performer who was recognized on film, television, and stage. Davis could keep an audience entertained for hours with his singing, dancing, comedy, impressions, and playing of the piano and drums. He began his career as a toddler in vaudeville. He went on to stardom in Las Vegas nightclubs, motion pictures, television and Broadway. He made scores of hit recordings, the best known of which were his signature songs Candy Man, Mr. Bojangles, What Kind of Fool Am I? And Ive Gotta Be Me. While serving in the Army, he endured racial hatred (having his nose broken on several occasions and being painted white.) He was a great humanitarian, contributing generously to Black colleges and other causes. He also participated in civil rights marches. His many honors include: NAACP Spingarn Medal, Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame honoree, honorary degrees from Black colleges and a Kennedy Center Honor for career achievement. He wrote two autobiographies: Yes I Can and the sequel Why Me?
James Weldon Johnson, former U.S. Consul in Venezuela and Nicaragua, former editor. secretary, NAACP, poet received Spingarn Medal for distinguished achievements as author, diplomat and public servant. June 30.
Louis Armstrong recorded first of "Hot Five and Hot Seven" recordings which influenced jazz. Nov.11.
1926 Black History Week started.
Johnnie Tilmon Blackston born 4/10/26 in Scott, AR. He later founded the National Welfare Rights Organization
Spingarn Medal to Carter G. Woodson, historian and founder of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, for ten years devoted service in collecting and publishing the records of the Black in America, June 29.
Bessie Coleman, first licensed Black pilot in the World, died on April 30th in Jacksonville, Florida. Early that morning Coleman and her companion William Wills took off in an old World War I surplus Army airplane to practice for an upcoming air show. At about 2,000 feet the airplane entered a nose dive. According to witnesses, at about 1,000 feet the nose tucked under and catapulted Coleman from the rear seat - without her parachute. Wills rode the airplane down and was killed when it struck a tree. Bessie Coleman was born in Atlanta, TX on January 26, 1893 and was the 12th of 13 children. She attended one semester at Langston Industrial College (now Langston University) in Langston, OK. She moved to Chicago in either 1913 or 1914. There she became a famous manicurist. In 1921 she learned to fly from top pilots in France and obtained an international pilots license. A stamp was issued as part of the US Postal Service Black Heritage Collection honoring Bessie Coleman in April of this year.
Dr. William S. Scarborough, scholar and educator, died. Aug 9
The play "Porgy" was written by Dubose and Dorothy Heyward.
John William Coltrane, saxophonist and composer/arranger, was born Sep 23rd in Hamlet, NC. He had a great impact on contemporary music. Like his contemporary Charlie Parker, it was evident the "Trane", as his friends called him, was instrumental in leading virtually all contemporary improvisational musicians to new and uncharted heights. He underwent his initial training in groups headed by Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Johnny Hodges, and Earl Bostic. He gained increasing recognition through his association with the Miles Davis Group. Miles Dewey Dais was sometimes referred to as "the evil genius of jazz" because of his sinister appearance and rude stage manner. It was during the late fifties-early sixties that he recorded a series of successful albums for Atlantic records. In April 1960, he left the Miles Davis group and created his own quartet backed by his own artistry. Coltrane joined ABC / Impulse records the next year where he earned the undisputed reputation for being an avant-garde jazz leader. He died July 17, 1967 from live problems at the age of 40.
Arthur Schomburg donated these two things to the New York public Library, his entire collection of black art and literature.
In l926, Violette M. Anderson became the first black woman lawyer to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Arna Bontemps received the Alexander Puskin Award for his book, "Golgotha is a Mountain."
Ulysses Grant Dailey, physician and surgeon, in 1926 founded the Dailey Hospital and Sanitarium in Chicago.
1927 United States Supreme Court struck down law in Texas barring Blacks from voting "white primary." March 7.
Eugene Chen, born of Chinese-Negro parentage, is one of the most dynamic political figures of the present century. and Minister of Foreign Affairs for China. He was born of Chinese-Negro parentage in Trinidad, West Indies, in 1878. He was also secretary to Dr. Sun Yat Sen, first president of China.
Leontyne Price, Mississippi born Feb 10th. World acclaimed opera singer.
Toni Morrison, novelist, essayist and the 1993 winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, was born on Feb 18th in Lorain, Ohio. Morrison is the first Black American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature and the second American woman to win the prize in literature. She was presented the award in Stockholm, Sweden. From her first novel The Bluest Eye published in 1970 to her latest novel Jazz published in 1992, Toni Morrison has examined what it means to be either a slave or a descendant of slaves in a country dominated by Whites. She was a 1988 Pulitzer winner for her work Beloved. Morrison studied humanities at Howard and Cornell universities after which she worked at Texas Southern University, Howard and Yale. She is currently a professor at Princeton University.
Anthony Overton, businessman, given Spingarn Medal for his successful business career climaxed by the admission of his company as the first Black organization permitted to do insurance business under the rigid requirements of the State of New York. June 28.
1928 Charles W. Chestnutt, author, awarded Spingarn Medal for his "pioneer work as a literary artist depicting the life and struggle of Americans of Negro descent. and for his long and useful career as scholar, worker and freeman in one of America's greatest cities " July 3.
Oscar de Priest was the first Black from non-Southern state to be elected to Congress. Nov. 6.
Richmond Barthe was the creator of "Flute Boy," the African influenced sculpture that won the 1928 Harmon Award. The Harmon Foundation has been exhibiting the works of African Americans, and now has the largest collection in the United States.
Eubie Blake composed the music for the black musical "Blackbirds."
Paul Robeson sang his most famous song, "Ole Man River," in the musical entitled "Showboat."
1929 Martin Luther King, Jr. born in Atlanta, Georgia. Jan.15.
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters received charter from AFL. Feb.23.
Jessie Redmond Fauset published the novel "Plum Bum."
The first intercollegiate black college football bowl game was played in 1929 between Prairie View College and Atlanta University.
Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, president of Howard University, received Spingarn Medal "for his successful administration as first Black president of the leading Black university in America, and especially for his leadership in securing, during the past year, legal authority for appropriations to Howard University by the government of the United States." July 2.
Wallace Thurman wrote fiction during the late Renaissance. "The Blacker The Berry" The novel dealt with the discrimination of light-skinned blacks.
Noble Sissle took a band to Paris in 1929 and teamed with Eubie Blake in writing words and music to such tunes as "Love Will Find A Way" and "Im Just Wild About Harry."
W. T. Francis, appointed American consul to Liberia by President Coolidge, died in Africa. July 15.
There were ten known lynchings in the United States during the year; Florida led with four.
Francis E. Rivers first Black admitted to the New York Bar Association.
1929 Numa P.G. Adams became the first black dean of the Howard Medical School.
Atlanta University was founded in 1929 by John Hope, a civil rights leader and educator.
1930 Green Pastures opened on Broadway featuring Richard B. Harrison as "De Lawd." Feb. 26.
Spingarn Medal to Henry A. Hunt, principal for Fort Valley High and Industrial School "for twenty-five years of modest, faithful, unselfish and devoted service in the education of colored people of rural Georgia and the teaching profession in that state." May 3.
Faith Ringgold is born 10/8/30 in New York City. Will become a multimedia artist and activist.
The New York Times announced that the "n" in "Negro" would hereafter be capitalized - June 7 -
Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune was selected as one of the fifty leading women of America compiled by contemporary social historian Ida Tarbell. June 22.
Joel E. Spingarn elected President of NAACP.
Charles Gilpin, noted actor, died.
Jack Thompson became welterweight champion of the world when he defeated Jackie Fields. May 9.
1931 Richard B, Harrison received Spingarn Medal for his "fine and reverent characterization of the Lord in Marc Connelly's play, The Green Pastures (which) has made that play the outstanding dramatic accomplishment in the year 1931. But the Medal is given to Mr. Harrison not simply for this crowning accomplishment, but for the long years of his work as dramatic reader and entertainer, interpreting to the mass of colored people in church and school the finest specimens of English drama from Shakespeare down. It is fitting that in the sixty-seventh year of his life he should receive widespread acclaim for a role that typifies and completes his life work." March22
Dr. Daniel Williams, died, Negro Chicago surgeon who was the first to perform a successful operation on the human heart.
Rev. James Cleveland is born Dec 5th in Chicago, IL. He will become known as the "King of Gospel Music".
Alcide Delmont, Negro, French Cabinet Minister.
Willie Mays, one of the most exciting players in baseball history, was born May 6th. He electrified fans with his sensational fielding, outstanding hitting and base-running. During his major league career, he hit 660 home runs. Only Hank Aaron and Babe Ruth hit more. Mays played center field for the New York Giants during most of his major league career. He was named the National Leagues Most Valuable Player in 1954 and 1965. He led the league in home runs four times and led it in stolen bases four times. During the 1954 World Series, Mays executed a spectacular running over-the-shoulder catch of a long fly hit by Vic Wertz of the Cleveland Indians. The catch ranks among the most exciting and memorable plays in World Series history. Mays was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1979 as a member of the San Francisco Giants.
Gratien Candace, Negro, Frances Cabinet Minister.
George Schuyler wrote the novel, "Black No More."
Phillippa Duke Schuyler, concert pianist, composer and writer was born August 2nd. Phillippa learned the alphabet at 19 months old. She began her career at age 4 and won the gold medal in the National Piano teacher Guild competitions. Phillippa completed eighth grade at the age of 10. She gave two piano recitals at the New York worlds fair in 1940, and by age 14 she had composed 200 musical selections. This young artist, who spoke French, Spanish and Italian, and traveled the world on concert tours, was also author of several books. The daughter of George S. Schuyler, the late editor of the Pittsburgh courier, Phillippa died in a helicopter crash in DaNang Bay, south Vietnam on May 9, 1967 at age 34.
The Scottsboro Case was the famous Alabama trial that began in 1931 that involved nine young black boys and aroused world-wide protest. The cause celebre trial of the decade, the Scottsboro trial, began in Alabama. April 6
Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, founder of Chicago's Provident Hospital, died. Aug. 4
1932 Spingarn Medal to Robert Russa Moton., principal of Tuskegee Institute, "for his thoughtful leadership of conservative opinion and action on the Negro in the United States, as shown in the U.S. Veterans' Hospital. controversy at Tuskegee; by his stand on education in Haiti; by his support of equal opportunity for the Negro in the American public school system and by his expression of the best ideals of the Negro in his book, What the Negro Thinks ." May 20
The "Empress of African Song" Zensi Miriam Makeba is born March 4th.
Gaston Monnerville, Negro, Frances Cabinet Minister.
Thomas Dorsey opened the first black publishing house for Gospel music. Born 7/1/1899 in Villa Rica, GA, Mr. Dorsey will become known as the "Father of Gospel Music."
1933 NAACP made its first attack on segregation and discrimination in education and filed suit against the University of North Carolina on behalf of Thomas Hocutt; case was lost on technicality. March 15.
Herman Banning, first Black aviator to be licensed by the US Department of Commerce, died on this day in an airplane crash (he was not the pilot) in San Diego, CA. On September 19, 1932, Banning and his mechanic,
Thomas Cox Allen became the first Black to pilot a plane across the United States. This pioneering journey from Los Angeles to New York took 22 hours over a 20-day period. The flight was completed October 9, 1932. They had only $25 to finance the journey, but many people contributed funds to help, including supporters of Franklin D. Roosevelts presidency.
Fulgencio Batista, a Negro, was the leader of a successful Cuban revolt. Batista, a Negro sergeant from Oriente Province, later became President of the Republic.
Walter E. Fauntroy born Feb 6, 1933 in Washington, D.C. He will become US Congressman for the District of Columbia, a civil rights leader and a minister.
Max Yergan, for ten years American YMCA secretary among the native students of South Africa, received the Spingarn Medal as "a missionary of intelligence, tact and self-sacrifice, representing the gift of cooperation and culture which American Negroes may send back to their Motherland; and he inaugurated tact year an unusual local movement for interracial understanding among black and white students." July 1
1934 Mississippi Senate passed a law permitting a private citizen, one C. W. Collins, to spring the trap to hang three Blacks accused of raping Collins' daughter. March 10.
Spingarn Medal to William Taylor Buwell Williams, Dean of Tuskegee Institute, "for his long service as field agent of the Slater and Jeanes Funds and the General Education Board, his comprehensive knowledge of the field of Negro education and educational equipment, and his sincere efforts for their betterment." June 2
E. W. P. Chinnery discovered an unknown Negro people in New Guinea, near Australia. He reports that they have a civilization superior to their neighbors, who live under white rule.
Arthur Mitchell deflated Oscar de Priest for the Illinois Congressional seat held by the latter. Nov. 7. He was the first black Democrat ever to sit in the Congress.
Dr. W. E. B. DuBois resigned as editor of the Crisis.
Bishop W. Sampson Brooks, founder of Monrovia College in Liberia, died in San Antonio, Texas.
Henry "Hammerin Hank" Aaron born. Major League home run champion.
Wole Soyinka, Nigerian playwright, poet, novelist, essayist and teacher was born July 13th. He was the first Black writer of any nation to win the Nobel Prize for literature (1986). After graduating from the University of Leeds in England, he worked as a teacher and scriptwriter at the Royal Court Theater I London. In 1960, Soyinka returned to Nigeria and quickly became an established dramatist, actor and director. In 1967, he was arrested and accused of conspiring with anti-government rebels and later imprisoned for almost 2 years. After his release, he lived in exile in Europe and Ghana. He returned to Nigeria in 1976 and taught classes at Ife University. Soyinka has been drama, fiction, poetry, essays and criticism. Some of his works include A Shuttle in the Crypt, Ake: The Years of Childhood and Madmen and Specialists.
1935 Richard B. Harrison died in New York City. March 18
Todd Duncan, Operatic singer, was auditioned by George Gershwin, and received the lead role in the famous Gershwin play "Porgy and Bess". The 1926 play "Porgy" was written by Dubose and Dorothy Heyward.
Joe Louis defeated Primo Carnera at Yankee Stadium. June 25.
Spingarn Medal to Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune, founder and president of Bethune Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Florida - "In the race of almost insuperable difficulties she has, almost single-handedly, established and built up Bethune-Cookman College. In doing this she has not simply created another educational. institution. Both the institution's and Mrs. Bethune's influence have been nationwide. That influence has always been on a high plane, directed by a superb courage. Mrs. Bethune has always spoken out against injustice, in the South as well as in the North, without compromise or fear." June 28.
Maryland Court of Appeals ordered University of Maryland to admit Donald Mung. Nov. 5.
National Council of Negro Women founded in New York City with Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune as president. Dec. 5.
1936 John Hope, president or Atlanta University, winner of the Spingarn Medal. Characterized by the Committee of Award as "a distinguished leader of his race, one of the foremost college presidents in the United States, widely and favorably known throughout the educational world." July 3.
Jesse Owens won four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics. Aug. 9. Rather than present himJesse Owens with his medals during the 1936 games, Adolf Hitler left the stadium. Owe was born Sep 13th 1913 in Oakville, AL. He set 11 world records in track and field. During one track meet in Ann Arbor, MI, Owens, representing Ohio State University broke five world records and tied a sixth in the space of 45 minutes on May 23, 1935.
June Jordan in born 7/9/36 in Harlem, NY. She will become a poet and author.
NAACP filed first suits in campaign to equalize teachers' salaries and educational facilities. Dec. 8.
1937 William H. Hastie confirmed as judge of Federal District Court in Virgin Islands, thereby becoming the first black federal judge. March 26.
De Heredia, as Minister of Public Works, built some of France's finest roads.
First African American formal ballet troupe debut in New York City on March 24th.
Joe Louis defeated James J. Braddock in Chicago for the heavyweight boxing championship of the world. June 22. He was the first Black Heavyweight champion since Jack Johnson.
Walter White, executive secretary of the NAACP, won the Spingarn Medal for his personal investigation of 41 lynchings and 8 race riots and for his "remarkable tact, skill and persuasiveness" in lobbying for a federal anti-lynching bill. July 2
Death of Bessie Smith in Clarksdale. Mississippi. Sept.26.
General Colin Powell, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces born April 5th in NYC.
Bishop Isaac Lane died at the age of 103.
1938 James Weldon Johnson died, June 24.
Langston Hughes play Dont You Want to be Free? Opened at Harlem Suitcase Theater and ran for 135 performances, the longest consecutive run ever in Harlem.
First woman Black legislator, Crystal Bird Fauset of Philadelphia, elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. Nov. 8., First Black woman state legislator.
United States Supreme Court ruled that states must provide equal educational facilities within its boundaries, Dec. 12.
No Spingarn Medal awarded this year.
The stone heads were unearthed in southwest Mexico in 1938.The most extraordinary monuments of the Olmec civilization are11 colossal stone Africanoid (Negroid) heads, each over 9ft. tall and weighing 15 tons.
1939 Broadway opening of Mamba's Daughter gave Ethel Waters her greatest stage triumph. Jan. 14.
Marian Wright Edelman became the first African American woman to be admitted to the Mississippi bar as well s the founder and president of the Childrens Defense Fund. She was born 6/6/39.
D. E. Howard received a patent for his invention of "an optical apparatus for indicating the position of a tool." Jan 24.
Frederick M. Jones invents the first rotor. Jun 27.
Wisconsins Milton House, the oldest cement building in the United States, was a station on the Underground Railroad.
University of Wisconsin refused gift whose donor limited use of funds to white students only- Feb.18.
Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt resigned from the organization of Daughters of Revolution when Marian Anderson was barred from singing in Constitution Hall in Washington, D. C. March
Marian Anderson gave her Easter Sunday Open Air recital in Washington, D.C. Marian Anderson was denied use of Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. on Easter Sunday in 1939, she sang before 75,000 people assembled at the Lincoln Memorial.
NAACP launched drive to obtain one million signatures on anti-lynch petition. April ~2.
Mississippi Senator Theodore C. Bilbo introduced "Back to Africa Bill" in the United States Senate. April 23.
Joe Louis knocked out Tony Galento in the 4th round. June 28.
Spingarn Medal to Marian Anderson, contralto, "... has been chosen for her special achievement in the field of music. Equally with that achievement, which has won her world-wide fame as one of the greatest singers of our time, is her magnificent dignity as a human being. Her unassuming manner. which has not been changed by her phenomenal success, has added to the esteem not only of Marian Anderson as an individual but of the race to which she belongs." July 2
J. Matilda Bolin appointed first Black woman Judge in the United States; she was made judge of the Court of Domestic Relations in New York City by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia. July 22.
Mary T. Washington of Mississippi became the first black woman - Certified Public Accountant in America.
NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund organized as separate organization. Oct.11.
Jacob Lawrence painted a series of tempera panels entitled "The Life of Harriet Tubman."
1940 Richard Wright's Native Son was published and became one of the best-sellers of the year. Feb
Virginia House of Delegates legislature chose "Carry Me Back to Ole Virginia" by Black composer James A. Bland as the official state song. April.
Marcus Garvey died in London. June 10.
Hattie McDaniel, a character actress, was the first black to win an Academy Award, Best Supporting Actress, for her role in "Gone With The Wind."
Louis T. Wright, surgeon, awarded Spingarn Medal "for his contributions to the healing of mankind and for his courageous. uncompromising position held often in the face of bitter attack, that Negro men of medicine should measure up to the most absolute standards of technical excellence and, as a corollary, that havind done so, Negro medical men and nurses should he accorded every opportunity to serve, without discrimination on account of race or color." July 19.
Benjamin Oliver Davis, Sr. was appointed Brigadier General. the first Black general in the history of the American armed forces, Oct.16.
The autobiography of Langston Hughes, titled "The Big Sea," was written.
Dorie Miller, hero of Pearl Harbor had his first taste of combat on Dec 7th. He manned a machine gun and brought down for Japanese planes. For his heroism, Miller was awarded the Navy Cross which was conferred by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, the commander and chief of the Pacific Fleet. Miller was killed in action in the South Pacific in December of 1943. He was commended for "distinguished devotion to duty, extreme courage, and disregard of his own personal safety during attack."
An Atlanta, Ga. city ordinance required that white drivers carry white passengers, and Negro drivers carry Negro passengers.
The Pittsburgh Courier was the most widely read black newspaper in the country.
1941 George Washington Carver awarded the honorary Doctor of Science degree at the University of Rochester. June 18.
United States Supreme Court ruled in railroad Jim Crow case brought by Congressman Arthur Mitchell that separate facilities must be substantially equal, April 28.
Reverend Jesse L. Jackson born Oct 8th in Greenville, SC. He will become a major political activist and civil rights leader.
Richard Wrights novel, "Native Son" was published
Richard Wright, author, received Spingarn Medal because "he has given to Americans who have eyes to see a picture which must be faced if democracy is to survive . . . For his powerful depiction in his bhooks, Uncle Tom's Children and Native Son. of the effect of proscription, segregation and denial of opportunities on the American Negro." June 27.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt established a Fair Employment practices Commission. July 19.
Dorie Miller of Waco. Texas, messman on USS "Arizona," manned machine gun during pearl Harbor attack and downed four enemy planes,' later awarded Navy Cross. Dec, 7'
A. Phillip Randolph organized the first "March on Washington."
Dean Dixon became the first black to conduct the New York Philharmonic Orchestra.
Actor Canada Lee portrayed Bigger Thomas in the Orson Wells version of Richard Wrights "Native Son."
1942 Group of Negro and white men and women committed to direct nonviolent action organized the Congress of Racial Equality in Chicago. June.
The Negro Digest is the name of the first magazine, published in 1942, by John H. Johnson.
Bernard W - Robinson, Harvard Medical student, made an ensign in the United States Naval Reserve and was first black to win a Commission in the United States Navy. June 18,
Spingarn Medal to A - Phillip Randolph, labor leader, international president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. "for his unparalleled record of leadership in the field of labor organization and national affairs for a period of more than three decades " in recognition of the dramatic culmination of his years of effort in the mobi1ization of Negro mass opinion in 1941 in a March on Washington to exercise the constitutional right of citizens of a democracy to petition their government peaceably for the redress of grievances/ which was instrumental in securing the issuance on June 25, 1941, by the President or the United States of an executive order banning discrimination on account of race, creed, color, or national origin in defense industries and in the federal government, and creating the Committee on Fair Employment Practices to effectuate the order -" July19
William L. Dawson elected to Congress from Chicago Nov. 3.
Famed rock musician Jimi Hendrix (James Marshall Hendrix) was born Nov 27th in Seattle, WA. He was ailed as the worlds greatest guitarists. The late guitarist redefined the sound of the electric guitar with his 1967 debut album Are You Experienced? He died at the age of 27 from an apparent drug overdose. During his brief career, he recorded five albums which forever changed the course of American music and influenced countless other musicians who followed. Before his death, he was near financial ruin, owing thousands of dollars to his personal manager and his record company. Today, under the management of his father Al Hendrix, his music, name and image are worth millions.
Lena Horne made her film debut in "Panama Hattie."
1943 Death George Washington Carver in Tuskegee, Alabama. Jan. 5
Faye Wattleton is born in St. Louis, MO on 7/8/43. She will become a womens rights advocate.
Nikki Giovanni born in Knoxville, TN 6/7/43. She will become a widely recognized poet.
Arthur Ashe born April 10th in Richmond, Virginia. He will become a civil rights activist and the first African American to win the U.S. Open and mens singles title at Wimbledon.
George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess opened on Broadway starring Anne Brown and Todd Duncan. Sep. 28
Booker T Washington was the first American merchant ship commanded by a Black captain, High Malzoc, launched at Wilmington. Delaware.
William H. Hastie, jurist and educator, awarded Spingarn Medal "for his distinguished career as a jurist and as an uncompromising champion of equal justice. His every act, and particularly his protest against racial bigotry in an army fighting (or the democratic processes, has established a standard of character and conduct." June 6.
Race riot in Detroit Thirty-four killed; federal troops called out. June 16.
Major race riot broke out in Harlem. Aug. 1-2.
Lt. Charles Hall, Brazil, Indiana, was first American Black to shoot down Nazi plane.July 2.
Todd Duncan played the role of Porgy in the 1943 Broadway production of "Porgy And Bess." The role of Bess in the 1943 Broadway production of "Porgy and Bess" was played by Anne Brown.
1944 United States Supreme Court in Smith v. Allwright, banned the "white primary" which had effectively prevented Blacks in the South from voting. April 24.
Harry S. McAlpin on Feb 8th becomes the first African American accredited to attend White House press conferences.
United Negro College Fund established. April 24.
Dr. Mary E. Branch, president of Tillotson College. Austin, Texas. died. July 8.
Spingarn Medal. awarded to Dr. Charles R. Drew, scientist, "for his outstanding work in blood plasma. Dr. Drew's research in this field led to the establishment of a blood plasma bank which served as one of the models for the Red Cross. Dr. Drew was appointed full-time Medical Director for the blood plasma project for Great Britain. The report on this work was published and served as a guide for later developments for the United States Army and for the armies of our Allies. July 16.
From 1944 to 1946 Ernest J, Wilkins, Jr. served as a physicist on the Manhattan Project - the development of the first atomic bomb.
Death of composer Will Marion Cook. July20.
Black historian Edward A. Johnson died. July 24.
Etta Moten sings at the White House for President and Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt - a first for an African American.
Adam. Clayton Powell elected first Black Congressman from the East. Aug. 1
Anna Lucasta, starring Hilda Simms and Frederick O'Neil, opened on Broadway and was one of the year's great stage successes. Aug.20. The Black actress Hilda Simms was the star of the hit play, "Anna Lucasta."
SS Frederick Douglass, first ship named for a black, was sunk by enemy action. Aug 20.
Writer, Alice Walker born Feb 9th.
Black servicewomen sworn into WAVES for first time. Dec. 13.
1945 First state Fair Employment Practices Commission was established in New York State March 12.
Jewell Jackson McCabe born 8/1/45 in Washington, DC. She will become president of the Coalition of 100 Black Women.
On March 8th Phyllis Mae Daley receives her commission as ensign in the Navy Nurse Corps and becomes the first African American nurse to serve in active duty in World War II.
Massachusetts created a Fair Employment Practice Commission
One thousand white students walked out of Gary, Indiana schools to protest school integration. Sept. 18.
Paul Robeson, singer and actor, received Spingarn Medal for "distinguished achievement in the theatre and on the concert stage" Oct. 18. Paul Robeson starred in the title role of "Othello," the longest Shakespearean drama to run on Broadway in 1945.
Johnson Publishing company was founded by John Johnson. This company produces .Ebony and Jet Magazine. Mr. Johnson now owns several other businesses and is listed among the 400 richest Americans. Publishes the first issue of Ebony magazine November 1st.
Irving C. Molleson, Chicago Republican, sworn in as United States Customs judge. Nov.3
Dr. Horace Mann Bond elected president of Lincoln University on Jun 9th. He was the first Black and first alumnus to hold a presidency. He became the fifth president of the university. Previously, he had been president of Fort Valley State College in Georgia for six years. Dr. Bond was an outstanding scholar. He received his B. A. degree from the University of Pennsylvania, his MA and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.
Dr. Charles Drew invents the blood plasma bag.
More than one million Blacks were inducted or drafted into the United States armed forces by the time World War II ended. No African American receive the Medal of Honor in World War I or World War II.
1946 Countee Cullen. Poet, died in New York City. Jan 9
William H. Hastie confirmed as governor of the Virgin Islands. May 1.
Mrs. E. C. Clement first Black named "Mother of the Year." May 1.
Supreme Court banned segregation in interstate bus travel. June 3
Thurgood Marshall., special counsel of the NAACP, given Spingarn Medal for "his distinguished service as a lawyer before the Supreme Count of the United States and inferior courts. particularly in. the Texas Primary Case, which conceivably may have more far-reaching influence than any other act in the ending of disfranchisement based upon race or color in the country." June 28.
Ann Petry wrote the novel entitled The Street.
Jackie Robinson crossed the color line into major league baseball.
Sugar Ray Robinson (Walker Smith) was the welterweight boxing champion of the world from 1946 - 1951.
1947 Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers, first Black in organized baseball in modern times. April 10
Dr. Percy L. Julian, research chemist, received the Spingarn Medal "in recognition of his work as a distinguished chemist who has made many important discoveries that have saved many lives. He has demonstrated technical skill, courage and sustained effort on the highest level in making contributions that will benefit mankind for years to come." June 27
President's Committee on Civil Rights condemned racial injustices in America in a formal report, "To Secure These Rights." Oct.29.
First eight Black police officers in Atlanta begin duty Feb 13th. They use Butler Street YMCA to shower and change clothes.
John Hope Franklin, a black historian, published the book "From Slavery to Freedom."
The first black player to score a touchdown in the Rose Bowl was Buddy Young for Illinois. Jan 1.
1948 First Lt. Nancy C. Leftenant was first Black accepted in the regular Army Nurse Corps. Feb. 12.
United States Supreme Court declared restrictive housing covenants unenforceable in the courts (Shelly v. Kraemer) May3.
The biography of Frederick Douglass is covered in Shirley Graham's book, "There Once Was A slave."
Black elected for the first time to the American Nurses Association Board of Directors. June 12.
A Phillip Randolph formed the league for Non-Violent Civil Disobedience Against Military segregation. June 26.
Spingarn Medal awarded to Channing H. Tobias, "in recognition of his consistent role as a defender of fundamental American liberties. He brought to the President's Committee on Civil Rights intellectual vitality, courage and the richness of his long experience in the field of race relations. largely due to his persistence and clear insight the committee produced a report of historic significance in man's unending struggle for justice ." June 27.
Margaret Bush Wilson was the first black woman in Missouri to run for Congress, and in 1975, became the first black woman Chairman of the Board of the NAACP.
Martin Luther King, Jr. ordained Feb 25th.
Laura Waring portrait painter and illustrator dies.
Poet Claude McKay died in Chicago.
1949 Congressman William L. Dawson became Chairman of House Expenditures Committee, the first Black to head a standing Committee in Congress. Jan.18
Palisades, New Jersey, swimming pool integrated after two-year non-violent campaign. June 1.
Huddie "Leadbelly" Ledbetter dies Dec 6th. Legendary blues singer and musician.
Shirley Graham wrote "A Biography of Phyllis Wheatley."
Wesley A. Brown was first Black to graduate from Annapolis Naval Academy. June 3.
United States Navy Department announced policy of equality of treatment and opportunity to all persons in Navy and Marine Corps. June 7.
Dr Ralph K. Bunche, international civil servant, awarded Spingarn Medal "for his distinguished scholarship in the Myrdal study, his painstaking efforts as director of the United Nations Trusteeship Division, but principally for his priceless contribution to the settlement or armed conflict in the Middle East." June 17.
Station W.E.R.D. was opened as the first Black owned radio station in the United states in Atlanta, Georgia. Oct. 3.
Whoppi Goldberg was born June 21st as Caryn Johnson in New York City. She will become an Academy Award winner, actress, comedian, and entertainer.
William H. Hastie nominated for United States Circuit Court of Appeals, Oct.15.
Famed dancer Bill Robinson of stage and screen died in New York City. Nov.25.
On Sep 7th Blacks voted for the first time in an Atlanta city primary when Democrats went to the polls to nominate a mayor.
Inventor Frederick M. Jones invents the air conditioning unit. Jul 12.
Laura Waring, portrait painter and illustrator, died.
1950 James Weldon Johnson Memorial Collection of Black Arts and letters given to Yale University by Charles Van Vechten, Jan. 8.
Alexa Canady is born Nov 7th in Lansing, MI. She will become the first African American to become a neurosurgeon.
Dr. Charles R . Drew, pioneer in blood research, died. April 1.
Death of Dr. Carter G. Woodson in Washington, D.C. April 3.
Attorney-General MacGrath and Solicitor-General Perlman argued before the U.S. Supreme Court for the reversal of 1896 ruling which upheld segregation. April 4.
Johnny Ace, a popular singer accidentally shot himself playing Russian Roulette.
Charles H. Houston, leading constitutional lawyer, died, April 22.
While holding against segregation in the three cases before it, the U.S. Supreme Court avoided general ruling on "separate but equal" doctrine, June 6.
Spingarn Medal awarded posthumously to Charles H, Houston, Chairman, NAACP legal Committee and "stalwart defender of democracy, inspired teacher of youth, and leader in the legal profession . . . in memory of a life time of gallant championship of equal rights for all Americans, of unselfish devotion to democratic ideals, of swerving fidelity to the American dream of equal opportunity." June25.
American Medical Association seated first Black delegate. June26.
Mrs. E. Sampson was first United States Black appointed as representative to the United Nations.
Arthur Darrington, athlete, signed a contract to play hockey with the Atlantic City Seagulls on Nov 15th. He became the first Black to play in organized hockey in the United States.
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche was the first American Black to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. Sept.22. for his successful mediation of the Palestine conflict.
Edith Sampson, on Aug 24th was appointed an alternate delegate to the United Nations by President Truman and became on of the first U. N. delegates in United States history. Judge Sampson, noted Chicago lawyer and judge made history as the only woman of any ethnic background to graduate from Loyola University in Chicago with a master of law degree.
Gwendolyn Brooks won the 1950 Pulitzer Prize award for her book, Annie Allen.
The U.S. Supreme Court outlaws racially segregated dining cars in interstate transportation (6/2/50).
Frederick McKinley Jones inventor and technician, received a patent (#2,535,682) on Dec 26th for his invention of prefabricated refrigerator construction. Jones was born in Cincinnati, OH, in 1892. Jones served in World War I and gained notoriety when he developed a series of devices to adapt silent movie projectors into sound projectors. Jones also developed an air conditioning unit for military field hospitals and a portable X-ray machine. His refrigeration inventions revolutionized the food industry. He invented the portable air conditioner for trucks. This invention made it possible to transport perishable foods long distances without spoiling. His invention was later used on trains (refrigerated railroad car), ships and airplanes. During his lifetime more that 60 patents were awarded in his name.
Althea Gibson filed entry for national tennis championship; first Negro accepted . Oct. 26.
Chuck Willis was known as the "King of the Stroll". He recorded the classic song "C. C. Rider.>"
1951 National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses disbanded since aim to integrate Blacks into nursing profession achieved. Jan.27.
William E. B. DuBois was indicted by the U.S. Department of Justice as "the agent of a foreign principal" (Soviet Union). DuBois was acquitted that same year, he was denied a passport by the U.S. State Department until 1958.
University of North Carolina admitted first black student in its history April 24.
Oscar De Priest, former Congressman from Illinois, died, May 12.
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche first Black to win honorary degree from Princeton, New Jersey. June 13.
Spingarn Award to Mabel Keaton Staupers, who, as a leader of the National Association of Colored Nurses, "spearheaded the successful movement to integrate Black nurses into American life as equals," and whose work was "characterized by wisdom. vision, courage and refusal to equivocate, "as a result of which the NACGN was dissolved as no longer needed. June 29.
Carver National Monument in Joplin, Missouri dedicated; first national park honoring Blacks, July 14
Harry T. Moore, NAACP Coordinator for Florida, killed by bomb blast in house. Dec. 27.
PFC W. H. Thompson given Medal of honor posthumously for Korean War action; first Black to receive this since Spanish-American War.
Riots in Cicero, Illinois, worst since 1919.
Martin Luther King, Jr., received the Bachelor of Divinity degree from Crozier Theological Seminary, Chester, Pennsylvania.
1952 University of Tennessee admitted its first Black student. Jan.12.
Judge Waring quit his Charleston, South Carolina home as a result of ostracism for his fight for Blacks. Feb.24.
King Farouk I was the ruling monarch in Egypt before he was overthrown.
Spingarn Medal awarded posthumously to Harry T. Moore, NAACP leader in the state of Florida, and a martyr in the "crusade for freedom," for "his invaluable contributions and his courage in working for full implementation of the democratic ideal," including justice in the courts, the abolition of segregation at the University of Florida, and the expansion of the Black vote in the state. Assassinated by a hate bomb in his home at Mims on Christmas night, 1951. June 27.
The Mau Mau African tribe sought to end white domination in Kenya by staging a rebellion in 1952.
Ford Theatre of Baltimore dropped segregation policy in effect since 1861.
Jersey Joe Walcott lost his heavyweight boxing title to Rocky Marciano.
Southern Regional Council reported forty bombings since January 1951. Sep 7.
Tuskegee Institute reported that 1952 was thc first year in seventy-one years of tabulation that there were no reported lynchings. Dec.30.
Charlotte Bass was the first black woman to run for vice president of the U.S.
Sarah Vaughan, a jazz singer, won the "Downbeat Female Vocalist Award" from 1946 to 1952.
1953 Fisk was first Black institution of higher education in United States to get Phi Beta Kappa chapter. Apr l5
Toni Stone, an African American woman, is signed on to play professional baseball with the Indianapolis Clowns of the Negro American League.
United States Supreme Court bans racial segregation. It ruled that District of Columbia restaurants could not legally refuse to serve Blacks. June 8.
Albert W. Dent of Dillard University was elected President of the National Health Council. June 2.
NAACP set integration as goal, dropped "separate but equal" theory. June 23.
Paul P. Williams, distinguished architect, awarded Spingarn Medal for his pioneer contributions as a creative designer of livable and attractive modern dwellings and beautiful utilitarian commercial structures--contributions which have won for him the respect and admiration of his fellow architects and high rank in his chosen profession - June 26.
Drama by Black playwright Louis Peterson. Take a Giant Step, opened on Broadway, Sept.24
Hulan Jack elected president of the Borough of Manhattan. Nov, 4.
James Baldwin's first novel was "Go Te1l It On The Mountain."
1954 J. Ernest Wilkins of Chicago appointed Assistant Secretary of labor by President Dwight Eisenhower, April 23.
Landmark United States Supreme Court case, Brown Vs. Board of Education, etal, declared that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. May l
The James Baldwin play, "Amen Corner," was first produced at Harvard University
White Brotherhood set up in Georgia to retain segregation. June 6,
L. Ashford of Pacific Coast League was first Black umpire in organized baseball.
Spingarn Medal to Theodore K. Lawless, physician, educator, and philanthropist, recognized as one of the world's leading dermatologists, for his extensive research and experiments which have enlarged the area of scientific knowledge in his chosen field. July 4.
First White Citizens Council unit was organized in Indianola, Mississippi, July 11.
Charles V. Bush was first Black page boy in Supreme court and first in Capitol page school. July 24.
Mary Church Terrell died in Washington, D.C. July 24. Dr. Mary Church Terrell, tireless fighter for human rights, died in Annapolis, MD, at age 90. Dr. Terrell who for more than sixty years dedicated her life to campaigning against racial discrimination, was responsible for many victories in the field of civil rights. Dr. Terrell was born in Memphis, TN, the same year of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation (1863). She was one of the first women to graduate from Oberlin College. In 1895 she became the first Black woman and one of the first women to be appointed to the District of Columbia School Board. She was one of the organizers of the NAACP and a charter member. One of her most noted achievements was the Thompson Restaurant Case, in which Dr. Terrell, along with two other persons, sued when refused service in a restaurant in 1950. Three years later the fight ended in a victory which opened the doors of restaurants to Blacks in the nations capital. Her autobiography, A Colored Woman in a White World, was published in 1941.
Dr. F. M. Snowden appointed cultural attaché in embassy in Rome; first Black in major embassy post. Aug. 19.
S. Richardson named Chairman of the Federal Parole Board, first Black on Board. Sept.29.
Benjamin Davis, Jr. appointed first Black general in the Air Force. Oct.27.
Defense Department announced all units in the armed forces were now integrated. Oct 30.
Carol Williams engaged by Sadler Wells Opera. Nov 26.
Track star M. Whitman first black to win Sullivan Trophy, top United States amateur award. Dec 31.
Charles C. Diggs, at the age of 34, upset the Democratic incumbent in a primary victory to win election to the House of Representatives where he served until his resignation in 1980.
1955 School desegregation was ordered by the supreme court in 1955 after years of effort by the NAACP. However the court put no time limit on when desegregation had to be implemented. Many states refused to comply including Georgia, N. And S. Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Virginia, and Louisiana.
Opera Singer Marian Anderson made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera House; she was the first Black singer on the stage in the company's history. Jan. 7 (4/12/55).
Charlie Parker, one of the founders of the modern Jazz movement, died. March 12.
Death of Walter White, NAACP leader, in New York City. March21.
Roy Wilkins' appointed Executive Secretary of NAACP. April 11. His appointment followed the death of Walter White.
Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune died in Daytona Beach, Florida. May18.
U.S. Supreme Court decree for the implementation of the May 17, 1954, school desegregation decision; "with all due and deliberate speed." May31
Spingarn Medal awarded to Carl Murphy, dedicated editor, publisher and far-sighted civic leader, for his leadership role in leveling invidious racial barriers in employment, education and recreation. June 26.
B. F. Morrow appointed administrative officer in the Eisenhower Executive Office. July 8.
Georgia Education Board ordered lifetime ban on teachers who instructed "mixed" classes. July 11.
Emmet Till, fourteen years old, was kidnapped and lynched in Money, Mississippi. Aug.28.
Interstate Commerce Commission banned segregation in buses, waiting rooms and travel coaches involved in interstate travel. Nov.25.
Rosa Parks is a black woman of Montgomery, Alabama, who was arrested for challenging "Jim Crow" laws by refusing her bus seat to a white male.
Bus boycott initiated in Montgomery, Alabama. Dec. 5.Ending segregated seating on buses was not part of the negotiating demands of the Montgomery Improvement Association, which was formed after the Rosa Parks incident which started the boycotts. The boycott lasted 382 days.
Jul 9 - E. Frederic Marrow appointed administrative aide to President Eisenhower and became first Black to hold executive position on White House staff.
For her role in "Carmen Jones," Dorothy Dandridge became the first black woman nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress of the Year.
1956 Autherine Lucy enrolls as the first African-American student admitted to University of Alabama. Feb. 3.
National Press Club admitted L. R. Lautier as first Black. Feb 5.
Althea Gibson won both the French and Italian womens Tennis Championships in 1956.
Autherine Lucy enrolls as the first African-American student in the University of Alabama.
Ms.iss Lucy was suspended after riot at University of Alabama. Feb. 7.
Manifest denouncing U.S. Supreme Court ruling on segregation in public schools was issued by one hundred Southern Senators and Representatives. March 11-12.
The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed that Alabama's state and local laws requiring segregation on buses were unconstitutional on November 13, 1956. U.S. Supreme Court banned segregation in public parks, playgrounds, beaches and golf courses; rejected "separate but equal" doctrine.
Leontyne Price was first Black to sing before mixed audience in Laurel, Mississippi.
Louisville, Kentucky, schools integrated. Sept.10.
The autobiography of Langston Hughes is entitled "I Wonder As I Wander."
Dr. John Hope Franklin appointed chairman of the history department at Brooklyn College.
Jack ("Jackie") R . Robinson, brilliant and versatile athlete received Spingarn Medal for "his superb sportsmanship, his pioneer role in opening up a new field of endeavor for young blacks, and his civic consciousness. Dec. 8.
Rafer Johnson was the black track star who won the silver medal in the 1956 Olympic Decathlon and the gold in the same 1960 Olympic event.
1957 The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was founded in 1957. Martin Luther King, Jr., elected president of Southern Christian Leadership Conference at its organization meeting in New Orleans., Jan.12.
The District of Columbia Bar Association admits African American members for the first time. (11/13/57)
Robert Ming, Chicago lawyer, elected Chairman of American Veterans Committee, first black to head major national veterans organization. April 28.
Little Rock's Central High School in Arkansas gained national attention with the integration of nine black teenagers. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus calls our the National guard to bar African American students from entering the Little Rock High School.
Spingarn Medal awarded to Martin Luther King, Jr. dedicated and selfless clergyman, for his creative contributions to the Fight for Freedom and his outstanding leadership role in the successful Montgomery bus protest movement. June 28.
Althea Gibson won women's Single Championship at Wimbledon, England and the United States Law Tennis Championship. July 7, 22.
Booker T. Washington National Monument opened at Rocky Mount, Virginia,; second such memorial to a Black leader. July 28.
Rev. A. TJ. Carey, Jr. appointed Chairman of President's Government Employment Policy Committee; first Black in this position. Aug - 6. Archibald T. Carey, Jr., lawyer, judge, politician, diplomat and clergyman, was appointed chair of the Presidents Committee on Government Employment policy by President Eisenhower on August 3rd. He was the first Black to hold that position. Mr. Carey also served as an alternate delegate to the United Nations from 1953 to 1956, and served as pastor of Quinn Chapel A.M.E. Church in Chicago and named pastor emeritus in 1967. Carey was a native of Chicago and a graduate of John Marshall Law School there. He was twice elected to serve as alderman from Chicagos Third Ward and served from 1947 to 1955. He served on the Chicago City Council for eight years. He became a circuit judge in 1966, serving until 1978 when he was forced by law to retire from the bench at 70 years old. Despite this, he was re-appointed to serve another year because of the courts large caseload. Carey died April 20, 1981 in Chicago.
Prayer Pilgrimage, the largest civil rights demonstration staged by American blacks up to that time, held in Washington, D.C.
Congress passed the first Civil Rights Act since 1875. Aug. 29.
President Eisenhower ordered federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to prevent interference with school integration at Central High School. Sept.24.
New York City was first to legislate against racial or religious discrimination in housing with the adoption of its Fair Housing Practice law. Dec. 5.
The Montgomery Improvement Association became a part of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
1958 Clifton R. Wharton confirmed as Minister to Rumania. Feb. 5.
The University of Florida integrates.
Mrs. Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine awarded Spingarn Medal for "their pioneer role in upholding the basic ideal of American democracy in the face of continuing harassment and constant threats of bodily injury." July 11.
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s first published book was "Stride Toward Freedom."
Members of NAACP Youth Council began series of sit-ins at Oklahoma City lunch counters. Aug. 19. Black college students began age of sit-ins at Woolworths lunch counters in Greensboro, NC.
1959 First play written by a Black woman, Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry, was one of the major Broadway hits. March 11. The play, "A Raisin In The Sun," by Lorraine Hansberry was the first Broadway play by a black writer to win the New York Drama Critics Award as best play of the year in 1959.
Second "Youth March for Integrated Schools" drew 30,000 students to Washington, D.C. April 18.
Juanita Kidd Stout, lawyer and judge, was named by governor David L. Lawrence of Pennsylvania to serve as judge of the Philadelphia Municipal Court on Sept. Later that week, she was nominated by the democratic Party to run in November for a full term on the Municipal Court. Stout won the term and became the first Black woman to become justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. She was born in Wewoka, OK. Judge Stout received a BA degree from the University of Iowa and a law degree and master of laws degree from Indiana University.
Diane Carroll played Clara in the 1959 movie, "Porgy and Bess."
Mack Barker lynched in Poplarville. Mississippi April 25.
Prince Edward County, Virginia, Board of Supervisors abandoned public school system in attempt to prevent school segregation.. June 26.
Rev. Dr. King and others urged President Eisenhower to make statement against segregation. July 5.
Billie Holiday, legendary jazz andading blues singer, died in New York City. July 17. Billie Holiday, jazz great, died on July 17th at Metropolitan Hospital in Manhattan after long illness. Holiday was considered to be the best jazz singer in history, but like many she had fallen into the depths of alcohol and drug abuse. She started singing as a teen at a Harlem nightclub. She moved from club to club in Harlem until she got her first big break: a booking at the Apollo that netted her $50 a week and pushed her toward a national tour with the Count Basie Band. In 1937 she went on tour again, this time with the Artie Shaw Band. It was the first time a Black woman and a White band had shared the same stage. Billie Holidays real name was Elenora Fagan. She was born on April 7, 1915 in East Baltimore, MD. The nickname "Lady Day" was given her by jazz saxophonist Lester Young when she was with the Basie band. She borrowed the name Billie from the movie star Billie Dove.
Dade County, Florida, first to desegregate public schools in Florida.
Spingarn Medal given to Edward Kennedy (Duke) Ellington, composer and orchestra leader, for his outstanding musical achievements which have won for him "not only universal acclaim but also worldwide recognition of our country's contribution. to the field of music." Sept. 11.
Citizens of Deerfield, Illinois, authorized plan which blocked building of interracial housing development. Dec. 21.
1960 Forty-three arrested in Raleigh, North Carolina, sit-in. Feb 10.
Otis M. Smith, Nov 8, elected auditor general of Michigan and became the first Black chosen in a statewide election since the Reconstruction period.
Fifty-nine arrested in Chattanooga, Tennessee, sit-in. Feb 19
John McLendon became the first black head coach in professional basketball.
Roger M. Yancey is the lawyer who became the first black American judge presiding in a county court in New Jersey.
Pope John elevated Bishop Laurian Rugambwa of Tanganyika to College of Cardinals, first Black Cardinal in modern times. March 3.
Students served at Salisbury, North Carolina and at Atlanta, Georgia, lunch counters; students demonstrated in New Orleans. March 7.
Three hundred and fifty protestors arrested and placed in stockade in Orangeburg, South Carolina. March 15.
The black protest movement of the sixties started in Greensboro, N.C. Feb. 1, 1960. Forty arrested in sit-ins in four North Carolina cities. March 17.
Thirty-seven Blacks arrested in public libraries in Memphis, Tennessee. March 19,
Twenty-three arrested in art gallery and library in Memphis. March 22.
Lunch counters integrated in Corpus Christi, Texas; sixteen students arrested in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. March 28.
Ten arrested in Birmingham sit-in; White House Conference on Children and Youth endorsed sit-ins. March 31.
Fredrick M. Jones invents a thermostat control device. Feb 23.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee organized on Shaw University campus.April 15.
Sit-in protest at chain stores in Savannah, Georgia; fifteen arrested picketing chain stores in Ann Arbor, Michigan. April 16.
United States Federal Court ruled that Atlanta, Georgia, must start school segregation by September. 1961. May 9.
Winston-Salem lunch counters integrated. May 25.
Four lunch counters integrated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. June 4.
Langston Hughes, poet, author and playwright, received Spingarn Medal in recognition of his reputation "in America., Europe, Asia, Africa, Central and South America as a major American writer and considered by many the poet laureate of the Negro race." June 26.
Democratic National Convention adopted Civil Rights plank supporting sit-ins and school integration. July J2.
Elijah Mouhammad (Elijah Poole), black internationalist leader. called for creation of Black state at New York City meeting. July 31. Born in Sandersville, GA on Oct 7th he grew to become the founder of the Nation of Islam and titled the Honorable Elijah Mohammad.
Southern Regional Council reported that eight cities that desegregated lunch counters maintained "sales as usual." Southern School News reported that 94% of Blacks in America were attending segregated schools.
During decade of 1950-1960, 1,500,000 Blacks migrated from South to Northern communities.
Albert Cleague was the leader of the Black Messiah movement when it was established during the1960s.
Richard Wright died Paris. Nov 28.
Martin Luther King, Jr. And Malcolm X were the two major leaders assassinated in the 60s.
1961 Adam Clayton Powell assumed the Chairmanship of the Education and Labor Committee of the House of Representatives. Jan. 3.
Carl T. Rowan appointed Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs. Jan 25.
Andrew Hatcher is named associate press secretary to President John F. Kennedy.
H. Lewis conducted Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra; first black to conduct major symphony orchestra at its home during the regular season. Feb 10.
Robert Weaver sworn in as Administrator of Housing and Home Finance Agency, highest federal post ever held by an American Black. Feb.11.
Thirteen "Freedom Riders" began bus trip through the South. May 4.
Soprano Leontyne Price starred in Metropolitan Opera Company's Girl of the Golden West, first Black to open Met season in leading role. May 24.
Marvin Cook named ambassador to Niger Republic; first Black envoy named by Kennedv Administration to African nation. May 26.
C. F. Poole appointed Attorney for Northern California District; first Black in such position appointed in continental United States. April 16.
Jacksonville, Florida, closed its swimming pool to avoid integration. June 13.
Gene Baker, former 2nd baseman for Pittsburgh Pirates, was first black ex-major leaguer to advance to position of major league farm team. June 20.
Ten "Freedom Riders" sentenced in Tallahassee Airport case. June 23.
George L. P. Weaver named Secretary of Labor in charge of international affairs, July 9.
Spingarn Medal awarded to Kenneth B, Clark, Professor of Psychology at the College of the City of New York; founder and director of the Northside Center for Child Development and prime mobilizer of the resources of modern psychology in the attack upon racial segregation, for his dedicated service and inspired research which contributed significantly to the historic U.S. Supreme Court decision of May 17, 1954, banning segregation in public education. July 16.
President John F. Kennedy nominated Thurgood Marshall to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals. Sept.23.
Otis Marion Smith became Associate Justice on the Michigan Supreme Court. Oct 10.
Cincinnati Reds outfielder, Frank Robinson, voted "Most Valuable Player" of the year by Baseball Writers' Association. Nov 23.
James H. Meredith registered at the University of Mississippi.
United Press International picked Chicago Cubs' outfielder, Billy Williams, as the National League's "Rookie of the Year."
Ernie Davis of Syracuse University was first Black to win Harmon Trophy as college football's "Player of the Year."
American Anthropological Association reaffirmed belief in inherent equality of Blacks and whites. Nov - 21.
Blacks comprised 12% of population in cities of over 1,000,000, compared with 10% of a decade ago. Dec. 3.
In a final blow to "massive resistance." United States courts held unconstitutional a law permitting closing of integration-ordered public school districts.
There was an increase of 17,907 students, or 6% in the South's Black attendance of mixed classes over 1960.
School board presidencies of Oakland, California, and Washington, D.C. went to Blacks, the first Blacks to lead school systems in major United States metropolitan centers.
John Duncan became first black to serve as Commissioner for Washington, D.C.
Chicago Human Relations Commission reported city's Black population rose from 492,265 to 812,637, in the decade from l950 to 1960.
1960 Census showed that 1,087, 93l Blacks resided in New York City; 14% of city's total population and the largest number of Blacks of any city in the United States.
Wilson Goode, a graduate of Morgan State College, became the first black mayor of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
James B. Parsons, Aug 9, became first black appointed to Federal District Court in Continental US. James Benton Parsons, musician, educator, lawyer and judge on Aug 9th became the first Black appointed a federal district court judge by President John F. Kennedy. He was also the first Black to receive a lifetime appointment to that post. Judge Parsons was born in Kansas City, MO. He attended Millikin University in Decatur. He received his AB degree in 1934 and headed the music department of Lincoln University in Jefferson City, MO. He served as a bandmaster in the Navy for three years. In 1946, he received his MA degree from the University of Chicago and JD degree in 1949. He joined a law firm in Chicago, taught law at John Marshall law School, and was an assistant Chicago corporation counsel until 1951. Judge Parsons was the recipient of academic and professional honors, including a 1981 citation from the Chicago Bar Association for outstanding service as Chief Judge of the District Court. He died June 19, 1993 at age 81.
Judge Irving B. Kaufman, of New York State, is known for his declaring segregated schools in New Rochelle, NY illegal.
The Marvelettes Please Mr. Postman became No 1 R&B single and the first Motown record to hit the No. 1 spot on the pop charts. Please Mr. Postman was first released on September 4, 1961. On November 13 it hit the top spot on the R&B charts and remained there for seven weeks. Then on December 11, it became the No. 1 pop single. It stayed at the top for only one week and one week and was replaced by the Tokens doo-wop rendition of an old American hymn The Lion Sleeps Tonight.
1962 Jackie Robinson was first Black to be elected to National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, N.Y.. Jan. 24.
William P. Sapp, M.D.. becomes first Black intern. Works at Grady Memorial Hospital.
Lt. Commander Samuel L. Gravely given command of destroyer escort, USS Falgout; first Black to command U.S. warship. Jan 31.
Lerone Bennett, Jr. is the author of the historical publication "Before The Mayflower."
Mattiwilda Dobbs born 7/11/25 in Atlanta, GA/ She will become an opera singer and was thebecame first person (Negro or white) to sing before integrated audience in Municipal Hall in Atlanta, Georgia. Feb. 1.
Gaines Meredith was the first black to integrate the University of Mississippi.
John Thomas appointed Director of the Health, Education and Welfare Department's Cuban Refugee Program. March 15.
Census Bureau reported 6,025,173 of 18,871,831 Blacks lived in 25 largest cities; 1,457,000 Blacks migrated from South to northern and western regions in last decade. April 15.
Johnson Publishing Company was first Black company to enter the publishing field. April 25.
Luke C. Moore became first U.S. Marshal since Frederick Douglass held such position. May 9.
John Hope Franklin appointed William Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions at Cambridge University, England, for one year. May 20.
Death of E. Franklin Frazier, noted sociologist and historian, after 45 years of teaching, May22.
J. O'Neill named Chicago Cubs coach; first Black coach in major leagues. May30.
W. W. Braithwaite, poet, anthologist and literary critic, died in New York City. June 9.
Big Bill Russell of the Boston Celtics named "Player of the Year" by Sporting News. June 19.
NAACP had more cases before the U.S. Supreme Court than any institution except the federal government, June 18.
Rev. W. S. Houston was first Black elected Moderator of United Presbyterian Church, N.Y. Synod.
Robert C. Weaver, Administrator, Housing and Home Finance Agency (sworn Feb 14, 1961), was awarded the Spingarn Medal for his long years of dedicated public service at municipal, state and federal levels; for his pioneer role in the development and advocacy of the doctrine of "open occupancy" in housing; and for his responsible and militant leadership in the struggle for human rights. July 8. Robert C. Weaver, economist and the first Black U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (appointed in 1966), was awarded the Spingarn Medal for leadership in open housing.
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. arrested in Albany, Georgia, after anti-segregation demonstration. July 10.
Howard Jenkins, law professor at Howard University, appointed first Black member of the National Labor Relations Board, July22.
Mel Goode was first Black TV news commentator on network TV (ABC-TV). Aug 29.
U. S. supreme Court ruled that University of Mississippi must admit James H. Meredith, a Black Air Force veteran, whose application for admission had been on file for 14 months. Sept.10.
Hobart Taylor, Jr. appointed Executive Vice-Chairman of the President's Equal Opportunity Committee. Sept. 11.
Mississippi Governor Ross R . Barnett personally denied James H. Meredith admission to University of Mississippi. Sept 20.
U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ordered Board of Higher Education of Mississippi to admit Meredith to the University or face contempt charges; Board agreed to comply with order. Sept 24.
Governor Barnett defied orders of Court and personally interfered with Meredith's attempt to enter the University to register. Sept.25.
A. Leon Higginbotham nominated as federal judge for eastern Pennsylvania, youngest member of the federal bench in the U.S. Sept. 26.
Thurgood Marshall confirmed as member of Second United States Circuit Court of Appeals after one year delay by Southern opposition in U.S. Senate. Sept. 12.
Four major TV advertisers approved use of Black models in commercials aimed at nationwide audience
James Meredith escorted to the campus of the University of Mississippi with Federal Marshals. Sept 30.
University of Mississippi students and adults from Oxford, Mississippi, and other Southern communities rioted on campus; two killed. Federal soldiers restored order on campus and in town. Oct. 1.
Accompanied by federal marshals, James Meredith registered at the University. Oct.
Edward W. Brooke elected Attorney General of Massachusetts. Nov. 7.
August Hawkins elected as U.S. Representative from California, first Negro to represent this state. Nov 7.
Leroy Johnson first Black state legislator elected in Georgia since reconstruction. Nov 8.
Gerald Lamb ejected Connecticut State Treasurer. Nov 8.
U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregation in interstate and interstate travel was unconstitutional.
Diane Carroll was first black to play romantic lead in an otherwise all-white Broadway musical, Richard Rodgers "No String" April 15
Maury Wills of the Los Angeles Dodgers broke all records in major league baseball as the greatest "baseball thief" (stolen bases)
Wilt Chamberlain of the San Francisco Warriors was first professional basketball player to score 4000 points in a single season. As Philadelphia 76er scored 100 points in an NBA game.
2000 Blacks were enrolled in previously "whites only" colleges and universities in the South.
There were 948 "token-integrated" public school districts in the all-white southern school districts an increase of 124 districts over 1961.
Archbishop Joseph F. Rummel directed all Roman Catholic schools in his Louisiana archdiocese to integrate.
Marjorie Lawson became first Black woman judge in Washington, D.C
Mrs. Ann Roberts appointed FHA Deputy Regional Administrator and became highest ranking Black woman in the federal housing field.
Fourteen Southern airport voluntarily integrated their passenger facilities
The Albany (Georgia) Movement. comprising tile civil rights efforts of several action groups, including CORE, SNCC, SCLC, and the NAACP resulted in the following achievements in social relations:
(1) agreement by local authorities to form a bi-racial committee on racial problems;
(2) desegregation of the city's bus terminal and cafe;
(3) release from jail of movement demonstrators and an end to mass arrests;
the substitution of "Mr. & Mrs." for derogatory terms by city officials in addressing Negro citizens,
U.S. Supreme Court authorized Tennessee citizens to sue in federal courts to force reapportionment of legislative districts. This would result in shift of political power from rural segregationist strongholds to the relatively more liberal, heavily Black-populated urban South.
1963 Dancer/choreographer Katherine Dunham became the first black choreographer to work at the Metropolitan Opera House, choreographing the dances for a new production of "Aida."
The Organization of African Unity was founded to promote unity and cooperation among African states.
Rob Hayes set a world's record of 9.1 seconds for the 100 yard dash.
A Black Astronaut was picked as part of the crew in a U.S. Space Mission
"The Letter From the Birmingham Jail," written by Martin Luther King received national attention.
James Baldwin's "The Fire Next Time" published. Jan.31. James Baldwin wrote "The Fire Next Time", as a powerful protest against racism.
President John F. Kennedy sent his Civil Rights Message to Congress. March 1.
Carl T. Rowan appointed Ambassador to Finland, March 9
Governor George Wallace of Alabama stood in front of a school house door to prevent 2 black students from entering and desegregating the University of Alabama.
John Thomas appointed Director of the Health, Education and Welfare Department's Cuban Refugee Program. March 15.
Dr. John Hope Franklin appointed to the faculty of the University of Chicago. April 14.
Arthur Ashe, 19, was first Black to join the U.S. Davis Cup Tennis Team, May 14.
U.S. Supreme Court ruled that in cities making segregation a matter of public policy, whether by ordinance or executive order, Blacks may not he prosecuted for seeking service in privately owned stores. May 21.
President Kennedy said nation faced "moral crisis" over Black demands for equality; pledged legislation to open public facilities for all (TV address), June 12.
Spingarn Medal awarded to Medgar Wile Evers, NAACP Field Secretary for the State of Mississippi, World War II veteran, hero and martyr felled by an assassin's bullet in the back on June 12; accepted posthumously by his wife. July 4.
The historic MLK speech, "I Have A Dream," delivered to the largest civil rights demonstration in history, it took place at the site of the Lincoln and Washington Memorial in Washington, D.C.; 250,000 persons participated. Aug.29.
Bomb exploded in Birmingham Negro Baptist Church killing four Black girls; two Black youths killed in racial rioting which followed. Sept. 6.
James W. Silver, Professor of History at the University of Mississippi and retiring President of the Southern Historical Association, charged that Mississippi is "a closed society and a century behind culturally." Nov 8.
Rev. Benjamin S. Anderson, pastor of Princeton's historic Witherspoon Street Presbyterian Church, was nominated to become the first Black to serve as a moderator of the General Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church. Nov 30 .
Ralph J. Bunche and Marian Anderson were among the recipients of Medals of Freedom from President L. B. Johnson at the White House. Dec 7.
Dinah Washington died - Dec 14.
George Olden, internationally known graphic artist, became the first Black to design a U. S. postage stamp, the Emancipation Proclamation stamp, which went on sale on Aug 16th in Chicago. Olden attended Washington D.C. public schools and Virginia State College, where he majored in fine arts. During World War II, he worked in graphics for the U. S. Department of the Interior and Office of Strategic Services. Later he worked for the International Secretariat of the United Nations Founding Conference. He became CBS television network director of graphic arts at the age of 24. In July of 1954, the Japanese art magazine IDEA named him one of the 15 leading graphic designers in the United States. His work is in the permanent collection of the Amsterdam Museum in Holland. He was awarded the special gold medal of the Art Directors Club of New York for outstanding contributions in the field of television graphic arts, and later received a similar gold medal and citation from the Art Directors Club of Philadelphia.
Outfielder Tommy Davis of the Los Angeles Dodgers won baseball's batting crown for the 2nd consecutive year.
As part of the horror and struggles of the civil rights era, Sep 15 marks the death of four young Black girls who were killed in the 1963 bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL. The bombings touched off riots and confrontations between protestors and the citys all-White police force. The church is located at 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, AL.
William T - Mason Jr. appointed first Black Assistant Federal Attorney in Virginia.
1964 Senator Barry Goldwater called public accommodations section of the Civil Rights Act unconstitutional. Jan.19
Carl T - Rowan appointed Director of the United States Information Agency, the highest position ever held by Black in the federal government. Jan 21.
Sonny Liston was beaten by Cassius Clay in for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.
Atlanta Constitution, a leading Southern newspaper, reversed a previous position and editorially supported the public accommodations provision of the Civil Rights Act. Jan.22.
Beckworth trial for murder of Medgar Evers opened. Feb 1.
Arthur Ashe, Jr., Feb 9th, become first African-American on U.S. Davis Cup team.
Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) Feb 25th, wins world heavyweight boxing title.
Zambia obtained independence from Britain on Oct 25th. Facts on Zambia. Lusaka is the capital and commercial center. The official language is English. The population numbers 9,381,000 The colors of the Zambian flag are Red (freedom), Black (for the people), Orange (for mineral wealth), and Green (for natural resources). The basic money unit is Kwacha. Chief products are agriculture (corn, millet, sorghum, sugar cane), Fishing (perch and whitebait), Mining (cooper). Zambia is the worlds largest producer of cooper,.
Alex Quaison-Sackey of Ghana on Dec 1st became one of the first Blacks to preside over the General Assembly of the United Nations. Quaison-Sackey was a diplomat troubleshooter for former Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah. Upon assuming the presidency of the General Assembly Quaison-Sackey announced that he "intended to be impartial and guided by the sense of the Assembly."
A. T. Walden sworn in as Atlanta municipal judge; first black judge in Georgia since Reconstruction. Feb 4.
Mistrial in Beckworth trial; jury unable to agree. Feb 8.
Race riot in Jacksonville, Florida. March 24-26.
U.S. Supreme Court set aside contempt conviction of Black Mary Hamilton who declined to answer in Alabama court when addressed as "Mary." March 31.
Second jury unable to agree in Beckworth case; mistrial declared - April 26.
U. S. Supreme Court ruled that Prince Edward County in Virginia must re-open its public schools on an integrated basis. May26.
Sidney Poitier won the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' Oscar Award as best actor of 1963 for his performance in "Lilies of the Field." April.
Three civil rights workers reported missing on Mississippi Summer Project two weeks after release from jail in Philadelphia, Mississippi. June 28.
Spingarn Medal awarded to Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary of the NAACP, "despite his own urgent request that this present honor not he conferred upon him," for the "distinctive and immeasurable contribution to the advancement of the American people and the national purpose" in his work on behalf of civil rights movement." June 23.
Marion Starkey wrote "Striving to Make It Home: The Story of Americans from Africa."
Race riots in Rochester, New York. July 1.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed and signed into law; most far-reaching civil rights legislation since Civil War Amendments. July :3. The major civil rights bill was passed and called the civil rights bill of 1964, the major provisions of the bill were:
the right to. vote,
access to public accommodations, and
federal government authority to sue local municipalities.
Fifteen year old Black James Powell shot and killed by off-duty police Lt. Gilligan in New York City, July 17.
Race Riot in Harlem. July 19.
Bodies of civil rights workers Goodman, Schwerner and Chancy found in newly-built earthen dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi. Aug. 5.
Race riots in South Chicago suburb in Dixmoor; 50 hurt. Aug. 17-18.
Philadelphia race riots; 29 hurt. Aug 29-80.
FBI arrested four Philadelphia, Mississippi, law enforcement officers and former sheriff in connection with murder of three civil rights workers. Oct. 4.
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. became, at the age of 35, the youngest person awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He won Nobel Peace Prize. Oct. 15. It was awarded December 10.
NAACP resumed operations in Alabama for first time since enjoined from operating in state in 1956. Nov. 1.
Negro Baptist Church burned tear Ripley, Mississippi. Nov. 1
Civil flights struggle in Mississippi has resulted in: three killed, eighty beaten, three wounded by gunfire. over one thousand arrested, thirty-five churches burned, thirty-one homes and other buildings bombed--since the beginning of the year 1964.
Jackson District Attorney announced Beckworth will not be tried for murder of Medgar Evers without new evidence. Nov 15.
U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the public accommodations section of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Dec.
Public schools of the District of Columbia were registering a pupil enrollment of 85.7% Black.
Ford Foundation announced grants totaling $15, 000.000 to strengthen Black colleges.
Hampton Institute opened its new Communications Center, marking the 125th anniversary of the birth of the founder of Hampton, Samuel C. Armstrong.
Senator Richard B. Russell (Georgia) proposed a voluntary relocation of blacks proportionately at government expense throughout the states of the federal union.
Arthur B, Spingarn, a founder of NAACP and President since 1940, announced plans to retire at the end of the year.
Erwin S. Perry, who received his Ph.D., this year from the University of Texas, made such a distinguished record that he was appointed to the University faculty commencing in September.
Hobart Taylor appointed Associate Special Counsel at the White House for President L. B. Johnson, succeeding Theodore C. Sorenson.
National Urban League launched anti-poverty campaign among Blacks under leadership of Whitney Young, Jr.
Clinton E. Knox nominated Ambassador to Dahomey.
John Hayries Holmes, one of founders of NAACP, died.
Three Broadway shows included interracial romances without audience incident: Golden Boy, The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window, The Owl and the Pussycat.
Black athletes contributed significantly to United States prestige at the XVII Olympics in Tokyo by winning half of the 36 gold medals awarded American athletes.
1965 Lorraine Vivian Hansberry, leading Black playwright, died in New York City. Jan 13.
Nat King Cole, singer and jazz pianist died Feb 15th.
Ruby Dee, became first African American actress to play major role(s) at the American Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Connecticut. She played Kate in the Taming of the Shrew and Cordelia in King Lear.
(El Malik El Shabazz) Malcolm X assassinated Feb 22nd. 39 year old Black nationalist leader died in New York city. Malcolm X was assassinated in New York City while addressing rally of his followers. Feb 22.
Gambia Independence Day. Independence was granted from Britain on Feb 18th.
President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Lisle Carter, a Black, as Assistant Secretary in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Jan 15.
Three men indicted for beating Black civil rights worker in Greenwood, Mississippi, were the first persons to be arrested tinder the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Jan.15.
Survey of N.Y. Times of compliance with Civil Rights Act showed substantial compliance with Title II (Public Accommodations) in South, but "painfully slow progress against voting discrimination under Title I." Jan. 16.
Constance Baker Motley, former President of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City, became first black woman to he appointed to a federal judgeship. Jan.25.
Constance Baker Motley, Feb 23, elected Manhattan Borough president, the highest elective office held by a Black woman in a major American city to date.
Patricia R. Harris, May 19, named ambassador to Luxembourg, becoming the first Black woman ambassador.,
Governor Edward Breathitt of Kentucky signed Civil Rights law, first of its kind adopted by any state south of the Ohio River. Jan 25.
Geraldine McCullough was the first Black winner of the Widener Memorial Medal for Sculpture awarded by the Pennsylvania Academy of Pine Arts. Feb 3.
United States Civil Rights Commission reported that majority of Southern school districts were evading integration while still adhering to federal guidelines for desegregation. Feb 15.
Nat "King" Cole, noted singing artist, died in Los Angeles. Feb 16.
Malcolm X was assassinated in New York City while addressing rally of his followers. Feb 22.
Wyatt T. Walker, former assistant to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., named Special Assistant on Urban Affairs to Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York. March 1.
Bill Russell of the Boston Celtics was honored as the most valuable player in the National Basketball Association for the fourth time in five years. March 4.
Federal Judge authorized Selma-Montgomery march in Alabama, March 17.
President Lyndon B. Johnson called up 4,000 troops to protect Selma-Montgomery marchers. March 18.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Under-Secretary of United Nations Ralph Bunche lead 3,200 on 54 mile Selma-Montgomery march. Mar 91.
March from Selma ended as 25,000 Blacks and whites rallied in front of capitol, Montgomery. March 25.
Joan Murray became the first black newswoman at a major television station. WCBS New York.
Mrs. Crystal Bird Fauset, pioneer female legislator, died. March 30.
The first Black city councilman in the history of San Antonio, Texas, was elected when Rev. S. H. James defeated three candidates. April 8.
St. Thomas Episcopal Church of Philadelphia voted to nullify its 1796 charter restriction that limited membership to "Africans and descendants of African race." April 11.
Soprano Leontyne Price was awarded the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic - April 13.
Bishop Prince A. T. Taylor, Jr. became the first Black to assume the presidency of the Council of Bishops of the Methodist Church. April 23.
J. Raymond Jones elected leader of the powerful New York County Democratic Committee Tammany Hall). May 22.
Lerone Bennett, Jr., Senior Editor of Ebony Magazine, was awarded the 1965 Patron Saints Award Society of Midland Authors for his biography of Dr. Martin Luther King. Jr., What Manner of Man. June 17.
President Lyndon B. Johnson issued Executive Order creating cabinet-level Council on Equal Opportunity, with Vice-President Humphrey as Chairman, to coordinate civil rights activities of all federal agencies. July 7.
The 1965 Voting Rights Act, outlaws literacy tests for voting eligibility in the South. It providdesing for the registration by federal examiners of those Black voters turned away by state officials, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1965, the Voting Rights Bill of 1965 was passed. In the South the number of African American voters tripled. The major points of this bill were:
eliminated voter qualification tests,
allowed federal examiners to register voters, and
allowed impounding (hold in legal custody) of ballots until all had voted.
1966 There were only three Black Panthers: Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale, and Bobby Hutton, who was only 15 years old.
The Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School is chartered 8/13/66 in Los Angeles, CA. It is the only African American-oriented medical school west of the Mississippi River.
Arthur B. Spingarn retired as President of NAACP after serving since l940. Jan 3.
The first World Festival of Negro Art held in 1966 was in Dakar Senegal
Robert C. Henry unanimously elected mayor of Springfield, Ohio, by City Council, the first Black to become mayor of an Ohio city. Jan. 3.
"Yes I Can" is the title of Sammy Davis, Jr.s autobiography.
Margaret Walder wrote the novel Jubilee.
Floyd B. McKissick appointed National Director of CORE. Jan 4.
Harold. Robert. Perry installed as Auxiliary Bishop of New Orleans, first Black to hold that position in the United States since 1875. Jan. 7. In January 1966, Harold Robert Perry was enamedlected auxiliary Bishop of New Orleans by Pope Paul VI, and became the first black Catholic Bishop in the United States since 1875.
Bertram L. Baker became Assembly Majority Whip in the New York State legislature, first Black to win a leadership position in the state's legislature. Jan 10.
Robert C. Weaver appointed by President L. B. Johnson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, first Black to serve in a President's Cabinet. Jan 14. Dr. Robert Clifton Weaver on Jan 18th was sworn in as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development becoming the first Black presidential Cabinet member in the United States history. His appointment by President Lyndon B. Johnson was unanimously confirmed by the Senate January 17, 1966.
Edward W. Brooke, (R. Mass.) Nov 8, elected to U.S. Senate and became first black senator since reconstruction and first black senator elected by popular vote.
The United Negro College Fund received a grant of $2,000,000 from United States Steel Corporation.
Andrew F. Brimmer appointed to the Federal Reserve Banking Board, first Black to serve on the Board Feb 27.
Announcement was made that the new Smithsonian Institute in Washington. D.C., will hand in the Hall of Historic Americans in the Museum of History and Technology exhibits illustrating the progress of the civil rights movement from the earliest slave days to the March on Washington in 1963.
United States Supreme court upheld major provisions of 1965 Voting Rights Act, rejecting contention of Southern states that voting qualifications were powers reserved to states. March 7.
Hundreds of Black teenagers rioted in 12-square block area in Watts district of Los, Angeles, California. March 16
United States Supreme Court ruled Virginia poll tax unconstitutional, thereby ending poll tax in three other Southern states. March 25
United Staten Census Bureau reported Cook County, Illinois, had the largest Black population of any county in the United States: 861,146. March 26.
Bill (William F.) Russell named as 180ston Celtics basketball coach. First black to direct major American professional sports team. March 28.
First World Festival of Black Arts was held in Dakar, Senegal. April 1-24.
PFC M. L. Olive was the first Black to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor in the Vietnam War. April 22
John Lewis was defeated for re-election as Chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) by Stokely Carmichael, reflecting SNCC move to de-emphasize whites' role in civil rights activities. May 16.
White House Civil Rights Conference issued recommendations calling for multi-billion dollar program to give Blacks "true equality." May 25.
Eliot P. Skinner confirmed by United States Senate as Ambassador to Upper Volta, Africa. May 29.
Stephen J. Wright resigned as President of Fisk University to become president of the United Negro College Fund. June 2.
James Meredith organized a peace march which began a 200 mile civil rights march from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi, to encourage voter registration among Blacks in the South, June 6.
Meredith was shot in the back from ambush near Hernando, Mississippi. June 7.
National convention of Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) voted to adopt resolution endorsing concept of "black power" as enunciated by Stokely Carmichael during the Meredith March. July 1.
NAACP disassociated itself from the "Black Power" Doctrine. July 4.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., launched drive to make Chicago an "open city". July 10.
Three nights of rioting swept Chicago's West Side Black district. July 12-15.
Shooting, fire-bombing and looting in the Black area of Hough on Cleveland's East Side. July 18-23.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., stoned in Chicago while leading march in Gage Park section of Chicago's Southwest Side. Aug 5.
New York Assemblyman Percy Sutton elected President of the Borough of Manhattan. Sep. 13.
Emmet T. Rice was appointed United States Alternate Executive Director of the World Bank. Oct 18.
Carmen De Lavallade became the first black woman to win three gold medals in the Olympic games.
Edward W. Brooke elected United States Senator in Massachusetts on the Republican ticket; the first Black Senator since Reconstruction. Nov 9. He was the first black elected to the U.S. Senate by popular vote. He won the general election on November 8, 1966.
1967 House of Representatives denied Adam Clayton Powell his Congressional seat until Select Committee probed and reported on his qualifications. Jan 10. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. expulsion from the House of Representatives was ruled unconstitutional. by the U.S. Supreme Court.
Twenty Governors proclaimed Negro History Week. Feb 14.
President L. B. Johnson proposed new Federal Civil Rights Act of 1967. Feb 16.
Nineteen men, including a County Sheriff and KKK Imperial Wizard were indicted under felony provisions of 1870 Civil Rights statute in connection with death of three civil rights workers. March 1.
The former Republic of Biafra attempted to gain its independence from the African Country of Nigeria.
House of Representatives, 207-116, voted to exclude Adam Clayton Powell. March 2.
The Negro National Business & Professional Committee was organized at the Harvard Club in New York City; consisted of 47 business and professional Black leaders who plan to raise $1,000,000 annually to subsidize the Legal & Education Fund of the NAACP. March 24.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., announced he would take a strong stand against Vietnam War because it was major obstacle to Civil Rights movement. March 24.
Texas Legislature passed first civil rights act in recent history. April 6.
Roman Catholic priest Rev. Joseph Groppi charged with obstructing police and resisting arrest during disturbances following meeting of Milwaukee NAACP Youth Council of which he is advisor. May 7.
Blacks of Roxbury section in Boston rioted in protest against Department of Welfare treatment.
Blacks rioted in downtown Tampa, Florida, looting and setting block afire; 500 National Guardsmen called in by Governor. June 12.
United States Supreme Court upheld contempt of court conviction of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and seven other ministers for violating order against leading desegregation protests in Birmingham, Alabama. June 14.
Blacks rioted in Cincinnati, Ohio; Governor ordered 900 National Guardsmen to join 900 policemen.
Rev. E. H. Evans nominated for United Church of Christ national secretary, first Black to be nominated. June 24.
Fourteen persons shot, 1500 Black youths rioted in Buffalo, N.Y. June 30.
James Meredith completed second march to Canton, Mississippi, to prove that state and local police can protect Blacks if they choose. July 5.
United States Supreme Court unanimously outlawed anti-miscegenation laws. June 12.
United States Senator Edward R. Brooke of Massachusetts received Annual Spingarn Medal of the NAACP for distinguished achievement. July 10.
The first National Conference of Black Power opens in Newark, NJ. (7/15/67)
Band of Blacks rioted in Newark, New Jersey; 11 persons killed, July 13.
SNCC Chairman "Rap" Brown slightly wounded after fiery speech in Cambridge, Maryland, urging Blacks to burn town unless Black demands met. July25.
Thousands of Blacks rioted throughout Detroit, Michigan. July 24.
President L. B. Johnson sent 4, 700 army paratroopers into Detroit to deal with rioting. July 25.
National Guard fired on snipers as death toll in Detroit reached 36, more than the number slain in the 1965 Watts riot. July 27.
Edward Brooke and Roy Wilkins served on the 1967 Kerner Commission. President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed 11-member committee headed by Governor Otto Kerner of Illinois and Mayor John Lindsay of New York to study causes and propose solutions to racial riots. July 28.
National Guard and United States Army withdrew from Detroit. July29.
Mrs. Elizabeth P. Koontz was elected President of the National Education Association, the largest professional organization in the world. July.
The Baltimore Afro-American celebrated its 175th anniversary. August.
James Nabrit, Jr., resigned as President of Howard University in Washington, D.C. after a series of confrontations with Black militants on campus.
Carl B. Stokes was elected Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio Nov 9. Inaugurated on Nov 13. Carl Stokes was elected mayor of Cleveland, OH on Nov 7th. Stokes was sworn in on November 13th and became the first African-American to serve as mayor of a major American city.
Richard G. Hatch was elected Mayor of Gary, Indiana. Nov 9. Richard Hatcher was elected the first Black Mayor of Gary, IN on Nov 7th, and was sworn in on January 1, 1968 becoming one of the first African-American mayors.
United States Senate confirmed the appointment of Thurgood Marshall as the first Black Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Sept.
President Lyndon B. Johnson signed bill extending life of Civil Rights Commission to January 1973.
Maryland Constitutional Convention approved ban on racial discrimination. Dec 26.
Brandeis University Lemberg Institute of Study of Violence announced that only five of two hundred disturbances that occurred in 1967 appeared to have been precipitated by outside agitators. Dec 29.
1968 Robert G. Clark became the first black elected in the 20th Century to the Mississippi State Legislature.
About 100 Black leaders representing 20 organizations held a secret meeting in Washington, D.C. and formed a coalition "Black United Front," to organize Blacks in the nation's capital. Jan 9.
Roy Innis, a native of St. Croix, was named national director of CORE in 1968.
J. Simpson won the Heisman Trophy in 1968.
"Say It Loud, I'm Black and Im Proud" was James Brown's anthem of Black Pride.
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s last full length book was entitled, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community."
Eldridge Cleaver was the Presidential candidate of the Peace and Freedom Party. Eldridge Cleaver sought political asylum in the African country of Algeria in 1968.
Henry Lewis became the first Black appointed music director of a symphony orchestra in the United States, the New Jersey Symphony. Feb 15.
Julian Bond could not accept his nomination for Vice President of the United Slates in because he was too young.
For the first time in modern Alabama history, two Black candidates became the partys delegates to the Democratic National Convention. Feb 26.
The President's National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders issued its reports on the causes of racial riots in the summer of 1967. March 2.
Affirming a 1966 Federal District Court decision, the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that Alabama must desegregate its prisons within a year. The Court rejected Alabama's contention that segregation was necessary to maintain order. March 11.
The first state-wide open-housing law in the South became law in Tennessee after nearly a year of demonstrations in Memphis. March 27.
Black separatists met in Detroit for a National Black Conference sponsored by the Malcolm X Society to "set up an independent Black government" in five Southern states, and to write a "Black Declaration of Independence." March 30.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, while preparing a march on behalf of striking sanitation workers. April 4. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed April 4th in Memphis, TN. He was there helping sanitation workers in their struggle for better wages and working conditions. This year (2000) marks the 32nd anniversary of his assassination. James Earl Ray died serving sentence for the crime. The King family believe Ray was innocent and lobbied for his release.
Widespread violence struck l25 cities following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.; thirty-eight people were killed and 20, 000 arrested. Fifty-thousand Federal and State troops were on duty throughout the country. April 5-11.
President L. B. Johnson declared a day of mourning in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr., April 7.
Mrs. Coretta King, Dr. King's widow, elected to Board of Directors of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC); Dr. Ralph D. Abernathy was elected president - April 9.
Civil flights Act of 1968 featuring provisions to eliminate racial barriers in the nation's housing programs was passed by Congress. April 10. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 outlawed discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.
A settlement was reached in the Memphis, Tennessee, sanitation men's strike; the cause that had brought Martin Luther King, Jr., to Memphis where he was assassinated. April 16 by James Earl Ray.
The United States Department of Justice reported that 46 persons had been killed in the rioting that followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. - April 23.
Rev. Ralph D. Abernathy led a "delegation of 100" representatives of minority groups in conferences in Washington, D.C. with Cabinet members and Congressional leaders and presented a list of legislative demands for the poor people of America. April 29.
"Resurrection City," symbol of the Poor People's March on Washington, D.C., was dedicated. May13.
In three unanimous decisions the United States Supreme Court ruled that "freedom of choice" desegregation plans in the South were inadequate if they did not bring about integration as well as other plans would. Allowing children of all races to choose their schools, a plan practiced in 9 out of 10 Southern communities, tended to perpetuate segregation, declared the Court. May 27.
In a land-mark decision, the United States Supreme Court ruled that racial discrimination was prohibited in all sales and rentals of residential and other property. June 18.
The Fourth Assembly of the World Council of Churches, meeting in Uppsala, Sweden, elected three American blacks to the Central Committee, the body that makes policy between Assemblies. July 18.
Y. Times survey of civil rights movement found lack of meaningful progress for blacks had led to ferment in movement and changes in groupings and goals among such groups as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Congress of Racial Equality, and National Urban League. July 21.
Arthur Ashe became the first American since 1955 to win the United States amateur tennis singles title at the Longwood Cricket Club in Brooline, Mass. Aug 25.
The Democratic Party Convention had 337 black delegates - -189 voting, 148 alternates. A Black caucus was convened several times during the convention under the leadership of Rep. John Conyers, Jr. (Michigan) and Mayor Richard G. Hatcher of Gary, Indiana. Aug 27.
The Rev. Channing E. Phillips of Washington, D.C. was the first black ever placed in nomination for President of the United States at a major party Convention at the Democratic Convention in Chicago
In 1965, CORE unveiled a 3 part program for the liberation of black people in America which included the following:
(1) community self-determination bill to put the economy of the black community in black hands
(2) representation in policy forming outside the black community, such as police dept. government and schools, and
(3) drafting of a new U.S. constitution
Among the resolutions adopted by the 3rd Black Power Conference held in Philadelphia were proposals supporting the organization of a national Black party for "Progressive and Radical social change." The Rev. Dr. Nathan Wright was Chairman. Sep 1.
Arthur Ashe was the first winner of the new United States Open Championship in tennis at Forest Hills Stadium in New York City. Sep 9.
Attorney General of the United States, Ramsey Clark, announced that there was a drop in the number and severity of riots and disorders in the summer of 1968 compared with data of former years. Clark noted, however, that riots following the death of Martin Luther King, Jr., "made April, 1968, the second worst month in recent years." Oct 3.
James Earl Jones was hailed as the Broadway theater's newest "Star" after the opening of The Great White Hope. Oct 5.
Two Black athletes, sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos, used the victory ceremony of the 200-meter dash at the Games of the 19th Olympiad in Mexico City as a vehicle for a Black Power demonstration (Smith had won a gold medal for die event, Carlo a bronze medal for third place). Oct 16.
"What Manner of Man" (1968) is the title of Lerone Bennetts biography of Martin Luther King.
Nine Blacks - a record - all Democrats, were elected to the House of Representatives. Nov 5.
Mrs. Shirley Chisholm defeated James L. Farmer in the Congressional race in the Bedford~Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, N. Y. to become the first Black woman elected to the House of Representatives, and the United States Congress..Nov 5.
Yale University, following a recommendation made by faculty-student committee including four student members of the Universitys Black Student Alliance, announced that it would offer a B. A. degree in Afro-American studies. Dec 12.
Bob Beeman is the athlete who set a new world record in the broad jump (29ft - 2 1/4in.) During the Olympic games in Mexico City in 1968.
1969 The House of Representatives voted to seat Adam Clayton Powell, Congressman from Harlem, fine him $25,000 for alleged misuse of payroll, and travel funds, and strip him of his 22 years of seniority. Jan. 1.
Charlie Gifford of Charlotte, North Carolina, won the $100,000 Los Angeles Open for $20,000, Gifford was the second man to win a major pro golf tournament. Jan 12.
U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark reported that since the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, voter registration in Alabama, Georgia. Louisiana, and South Carolina had increased from 730,000 to nearly 1,500,000. Jan. 13.
Eldridge Cleaver, a Panther leader sought by the police as a parole violator since November 1968, remained in hiding as he was inaugurated in absentia in Toronto, Canada, as "president-elect-in-exile" of the United States. Jan 20.
Roy Campanella was elected to baseballs Hall of Fame by the Baseball writers Association of America. He is the second black player to be admitted to the Hall. Jan 21.
A black man was appointed to Virginia's State Board of Education for the first time in the State's history when Governor Mills E. Godwin, Jr. appointed Hilary H. Jones to this position. Feb 1.
The only black member of the living all-time major league baseball team selected in 1969 by the Baseball Writers Assn. of America was Willie Mays.
Moneta Sleet was the first black person to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize for photography.
James Earl Ray, who pleaded guilty in a Memphis court to murdering Dr. Martin Luther King. Jr., last year, was sentenced to 99 years in prison. March 10.
Former N.Y. Yankee Hector Lopez was appointed manager of the Washington Senators' Buffalo Triple A team of the International League. He became the first Black manager in professional baseball. March 20.
A strike of hospital workers -- mostly Black women -- started in Charleston, North Carolina, and turned into a major civil rights movement led by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. March 20.
The widow of Marine Sgt. Rodney M. Davis, of Macon, Georgia, received the Medal of Honor from Vice-President Spiro Agnew. Davis was killed in 1967, and he was the l0th Black man to receive the award for heroism in Vietnam and the 47th in military history. March 26.
Memorial services for Martin Luther King, Jr. were held throughout the nation. April 4.
Ernest Gaines wrote the novel "The Spook Who Sat by the Door."
The Department or Justice filed its first discrimination suit against a major Southern textile company, charging Cannon Mills with bias in both employment and the rental of company housing. It marked the first time the government has moved against segregated company-owned housing. April 8.
Clifford L Alexander, Jr., resigned as chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, giving as reason "a crippling lack of administration support." Mr. Alexander is a Black. April 9.
About 100 Black students seized the Student Union building at Cornell University. They emerged the next day carrying 17 rifles and shot guns. April 19.
In South Carolina the Rev. Ralph D. Abernathy, successor to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, led a march of more than 700 striking Charleston hospital workers. April 22.
The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare told Antioch College that it might operate an all-Black Black Studies Section as long as non-blacks were not excluded because of race, color, or national origin. But white students could be excluded on the ground that their background was not "relevant" to the courses. May 2.
James Foreman, director of the National Black Economic Development Conference, demanded that churches and synagogues pay $5,000,000 as reparations to the Black people. May 2.
Howard Lee was elected the first Black mayor of the predominantly (80%) white city of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. May 6.
Black civil rights leader Charles Evers defeated a white incumbent to become mayor of Fayette, Mississippi. May 13.
In a historic ruling the U. S. Supreme Court decided that the House of Representatives violated the Constitution in excluding Harlem Representative Adam Clayton Powell from his seat in the 90th Congress. June 16.
The head of the National Education Association (NEA) Compliance Committee reported that "all but the last step" had been taken to integrate all NEA state affiliates. NEA is the country's largest professional organization. July 2.
The Washington Square United Methodist Church in New York City became the first predominantly white religious organization to give money to the National Black Economic Development Conference by handing the group's chief spokesman, James Foreman, a check for $15,000. July 6.
The Department of Justice intensified its school desegregation efforts by accusing the board of education of Chicago and the state board in Georgia of segregation. The Department contended that Chicago practiced faculty segregation and that Georgia maintained an unconstitutional dual system. July 9.
The strike of nonprofessional hospital workers in Charleston ended after 113 days, having brought organized labor and the civil rights movement together for the first time. July 18.
Presidents of 31 Black colleges ended a 3-day meeting in Mobile, Alabama, by passing a resolution that criticized the federal government's lack of understanding of the role of the 113 predominantly Black colleges in the United States. July 18.
Columbia University announced the election of the first two Blacks to its Board of Trustees, Franklin A. Thomas and Dr. M. M. Weston. July 25.
In a special election held in Greene County, Alabama. Blacks won four of five seats on the county commission and two seats on the five-member school board, which already included one Black. The victory was hailed by the Rev. Ralph D. Abernathy as "the most significant achievement" by Black men since the Emancipation Proclamation." July 29.
The defense attorney for Bobby Seale, the Black Panther party's national chairman held in $25, 000 bail on charges involving the murder last May of a former Black Panther in Connecticut, accused the Justice Department of initiating a national campaign to harass the party. Aug 20.
After hearing that political pressures prompted the government to call for a delay in Mississippi school integration, about half of the staff of lawyers in the Justice Department Civil Rights Division agreed to protest the Nixon Administration's handling of desegregation policies. Aug.27.
The Episcopal Church's House of Delegates voted to grant James Foreman's Black Economic Development Conference $200,000. The organization had demanded the sum as "reparations." Sep 3.
Josh White, Black blues and folk singer. died. Sep 5.
Alabama ended its first week of widespread school integration with no trouble and no resistance from white parents although Governor George Wallace had urged defiance by white parents. Sep 6.
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights unanimously charged that the Nixon administration has chosen the wrong school desegregation policy and has made that policy an apparent "major retreat." Sep 12.
Rex Ingram, veteran Black actor whose career spanned 50 years on Broadway and in films, died. He was best known for his role "De Lawd" in the all-Black 1936 film, The Green Pastures. Sep 20.
The "Philadelphia Plan", which sets minority hiring guidelines for six skilled construction crafts, was ordered into effect by Labor Secretary George P. Shultz on federally assisted projects in Philadelphia. Sep 23.
The first Black mayor of a major American city, Carl. B. Stokes of Cleveland, won re-nomination as the Democratic mayoralty candidate. In the primary, he defeated his opponent with a greater percentage of votes than he had in the 1967 primary. Sep 30.
Senator Edward W. Brooke of Massachusetts became the first Senator to ask publicly that President Nixon withdraw the nomination of Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr., to the U. S. Supreme Court.
Dr. Clifton Reginald Wharton, Jr., was appointed President of Michigan State University. Dr. Wharton, an economist from New York City, became the first Black to head a major public and predominantly white university. Oct 17.
In a unanimous decision that was a setback for the Nixon administration, the Supreme Court ordered an end to all school segregation "at once." In the case of 33 Mississippi school districts, the court's decision replaced the Warren court's doctrine of "all deliberate speed" and dismissed the contention that providing a continuing education should take precedence over enforcing social justice. Oct 29.
Democratic Mayor Carl B. Stokes, the first Black to be mayor of a major American city, won reelection in a close race against his Republican opponent. Nov 4.
Thirty Mississippi school districts were ordered by a federal appeals court to desegregate by December 31 and to use, with some exceptions, federal integration plans. Nov 6.
The U.S. Senate rejected the nomination of Clement F. Haynsworth Jr., of South Carolina to the U.S. Supreme Court. Nov 21.
Police killed Fred Hampton, the Illinois chairman of the Black Panther party, and another Panther leader with a hail of shotgun and pistol fire during a raid on an apartment near the group's headquarters in Chicago. Dec 4.
Ralph McGill, editor/publisher of the Atlanta Constitution, known as "gutsy crusader for human rights," dies. Feb 3.
Bob Foster, a Light-Heavyweight boxing champ, defended his title a record 14 times in the 1960s.
1970 James Edwards, Black actor best known for his performance in the 1949 film, Home of the Brave, died in San Diego, California, after a heart attack. Jan 4.
The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) accepted its first African American member.
George Kirby, comedian and mimic, had a repertoire of more than ninety different voices.
Dr. Hugh Scott becomes the first African American superintendent of schools in a major U.S. city - Washington, D.C.
Revolution in Soweto/Trinidad - February
Urban Rap music created.
Sammie Chess, Jr. became the first black American judge in the history of North Carolina.
Four Southern governors (Governors Lester Maddox of Georgia, John J. McKethen of Louisiana, Albert P. Brewer of Alabama, and Claude R. Kirk of Florida) vowed to defy the federal government a plan to implement student busing arrangements in their home states to achieve desegregated school systems. Jan 10.
William B. Robertson, a public school supervisor, was appointed by Governor Linwood Holton of Virginia, as a key member of his executive staff. This is the first time that a Black served in a Virginia governor's office. Jan 13.
Integration of school districts in six Deep South States must take place no later than Feb 1, the Supreme Court ruled. This decision overturned a court appeals ruling allowing a delay until next fall. Jan 14.
Some cities closed their schools, some governors declared a special day, and many churches held services on the 41st anniversary of the birth of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the murdered civil rights leader. Jan 15.
The first volume of Maya Angelou's autobiography is entitled "I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings." (1970)
President Nixon nominated Judge G. Harrold Carswell of Florida to the U.S. Supreme Court. Carswell is regarded as a racist and conservative. Jan 19.
The killing of two Black Panthers, one of whom was Fred Hampton, a 21-year-old leader of the party's Illinois chapter, in a predawn police raid in Chicago last December was ruled "justifiable" by a special coroner's jury. Jan 21.
The National Institute of National Health presented a study on civil disorders which showed that armed white civilians were more widely involved in civil disorders during the last decade than were Blacks. The report was entitled, A Study of Arrest Patterns in the 1960's Riots. Jan.22.
Col. Daniel Jones Jr., a fighter-pilot who served as commander of U.S. Forces at Wheelers Air Base in Libya, was nominated for rank of brigadier general, Lieut. General Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. the only other Black general officer in the Air Force, has retired at the same time. Jan 25.
Seven Black Panthers who survived a police raid last December 4 were indicted in Chicago on attempted murder charges. Jan 30.
Joseph L. Searles III was the first black man to be proposed for membership on the New York Stock Exchange. Jan 30,
The deadlines set by federal courts for midterm school integration passed with small impact on the South, as many public school officials ignored the orders or closed their systems temporarily to await further legal development. Feb 2.
The Senate and the House approved education appropriation bills containing amendments introduced by Southern opponents of school desegregation. The House bill contained three anti-busing and "freedom of choice" amendments designed to restrict federal power to enforce desegregation. The Senate bill contained an amendment which would halt busing of children to achieve racial balance. Feb 19.
An all-white federal jury acquitted three white Detroit policemen and a "black private guard of conspiring to violate the civil rights of 10 persons in the Algiers Motel, Detroit, in 1967, where three Blacks were found dead. The prosecution charged the men with use of excessive force to obtain information about sniping during the Detroit riots. Feb 25.
School buses bringing Black children to a newly integrated school in Lamar, South Carolina, were attacked with ax handles and baseball bats by a mob of raging whites. State policemen used tear gas and clubs to drive the whites back. Several children were injured. After the children left, the mob overturned two of the three buses before being dispersed. March 3.
William Warfield, the world famous singer, celebrated his 20th anniversary debut in New York City concert halls at recital at Tully Hall in Lincoln Center, March 23.
President Nixon pledged to eliminate officially imposed segregation in Southern schools but said that until he has further court guidance he could not require the elimination of segregation caused by residential. patterns. He did, however, announce plans to allocate $1.5 billion to help local schools overcome the effects of residentially caused segregation. March 24.
In an effort to head off a Supreme Court backed school integration plan. Governor Claude R. Kirk, Jr., of Florida ordered Manatee County pupils to ignore the desegregation order. Kirk also personally assumed control of the county's school system after suspending the school superintendent. April 6.
The U. S. Senate refused to confirm the nomination of Judge G. Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court in a vote of 51 to 45. April 8.
Governor Kirk of Florida yielded to the authority of a federal court, and announced that he would reinstate the Manatee County school board and direct it to put into effect a court-ordered-integration plan. The court had ordered the governor to pay a $10,000-a-day fine unless he released control of the system. April 12.
Kingman Brewster Jr., president of Yale University, stated that in his personal opinion that he was "skeptical" as to whether Black revolutionaries could get "a fair trial anywhere in the United States. He said that he was "appalled and ashamed" that such a situation can exist and blamed police action against Black Panthers for it. April 24.
Allison Davis was appointed as John Dewey Distinguished Professor of Education at the University of Chicago, the first Black man to hold a major endowed chair in this or any of the great universities in the United States. April 27.
James H. Hubert, the first executive director of the New York Urban League, died. May 1.
The criminal. charges against seven Black Panthers who survived a Chicago police raid in December 1969 in which two Black panthers were killed were dropped after the prosecution said that there was insufficient evidence that any of the defendants had fired at the police. May 8.
A dusk-to-dawn curfew was imposed on Atlanta, Georgia, after a night of rioting that left six Blacks dead from police fire and at least 75 persons injured. Twelve hundred National Guardsmen surrounded the devastated neighborhood. Governor Lester C. Maddox ordered the Guard to shoot to kill and called the riot a "Communist conspiracy." May 12.
A student at Jackson (Mississippi) State College and a local high school senior, both Blacks, were killed in a barrage of police gunfire that riddled a student dormitory. May 14.
The NAACP gave $50,000 to save a commission set up last December for a national study of clashes between the police and the Black Panthers. May 14.
George C. Wallace was elected again as governor of Alabama in a campaign based upon his historical racism. June 2.
Earl Grant, entertainer and organist who was best known for his instrumental version of "Ebb Tide, " died in an automobile crash. June 11.
Federal Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., was elected a trustee of Yale University, the first Black person to be chosen for the institutions governing board since Yale was founded in 1701. June 15.
Kenneth A. Gibson was elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey, thus becoming the first Black man to be elected Mayor of a major eastern seaboard city. June 16.
Officials of the National Education Association testified before a Senate Committee that 5,000 Black teachers and principals in Southern schools had either been dismissed or demoted as a result of desegregation. June 16.
The Rev. Henry Jogner, Jr., became the minister of the Cavalry Methodist Church in Atlanta. Georgia, the first black minister to take the pulpit of an all-white Southern parish of the United Methodist Church, a Protestant giant in the "Bible Belt." June 26.
The head of the NAACP, Bishop Stephen G. Spottswood, denounced the Nixon administration as anti-Black in its policies. June 30.
Dr. Felton G. Clark, retired president of Southern University one of the nation's leading Black educators and a controversial figure in early efforts to integrate lunch counters in Louisiana, died. July 1.
"It's the job of Congress or the courts" to change the legal requirements for school integration if the current laws are insufficient, stated the civil rights chief of the Justice Department before a Senate committee in a defense of administration policy. Democratic members of the committee had attacked the administrations desegregation policy as being a set of narrow legalisms. July 13.
Louis E Lomax, a nationally known Black writer and member of the faculty of Hofstra University in Long Island. N.Y. was killed in an automobile crash. He was known as one of the major interpreters of the integration movement. Aug 1.
Arrangements were made for graveside services for a black soldier killed in Vietnam after a federal judge ordered a segregated cemetery in Fort Pierce, Florida, to accept the body. A 72-year-old white woman had donated the grave despite a charter assuring burial only to white plot owners. Aug 27. One of every ten, or a total of 5,570 servicemen killed in The Vietnam War were African American.
There was no reported violence as most Southern children returned to school many to newly integrated classrooms. Aug 31.
Dr. Hugh S. Scott was appointed Superintendent of Schools by the District of Columbia Board of Education. He became the first Black school superintendent of a major American city. Sep 1.
The killing of two Black students at Jackson State College the past May was "unreasonable unjustified overreaction" on the part of Mississippi policemen, reported the President's Commission on Campus Unrest. Oct 1.
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, Under Secretary of the United Nations, received the 8th Annual Family of Man Awards for excellence from the Council of Churches of the city of New York. Oct 22.
Wilson Riles defeated Superintendent of Public Instruction Max Rafferty in one of the most stunning upsets in California political history to become the first Black man ever to hold statewide office in California. Nov 4.
A record number of Blacks were elected to the House of Representatives. The members elected for the first time were: George W. Collins (Illinois), Ronald V. Dellums (California), Ralph Metcalfe (Illinois), Parren J. Mitchell (Maryland), and Charles B. Rangle (New York). All the Representatives are Democrats. Nov 4.
City Councilman Louis Mason Jr. became the first black man elected president of Pittsburghs City Council. Dec 14.
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York announced the appointment that Whitney M. Young, Jr. executive director of the National Urban League, had been appointed by the Federal Reserve Board to a three-year term as a Class C director of the bank. He will be the first Black to serve on the bank's board, although other Blacks are serving on the boards of other regional banks. Dec 29.
Charles Gordone won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his play "No Place To Be Somebody."
Melba Moore, actress, on April 19th won a Tony Award for distinguished achievement as a supporting actress in the musical, Purlie.
Arthur Ashe was denied a vissa to compete in the 1970 "South African Open" Tennis Tournament.
Female activist Angela Davis was acquitted by jury of eleven whites and Mexican American (6/4/72) to charges of murder, kidnapping and criminal conspiracy stemming from a courtroom shoot-out in San Raphael, California.
Wilma Rudolph became the first black woman to receive the "Dance Magazine Award."
1971 Dr. Melvin H. Evans, a black physician, was installed as the first elected Governor of the Virgin Islands. Jan 4.
Military Coup in Uganda
Whitney Young met his accidental death in 1971 in Lagos, Nigeria.
Isaac Hayes won an Academy Award in 1971 for composing the score for the movie Shaft
The life story of actor Paul Robeson in entitled "Here I Stand."
Rev. Dr. Leon Howard Suillivan, a Black minister from Phi1adelphia, was elected to the board of directors of the General Motors Corporation. He is the first Black man to be appointed to the world's largest industrial corporation. Jan 4.
Louis Armstrong, "King of Jazz," died. July 7.
Henry T. Sampson invents the Cellular Car Phone. Jul 6.
1972 Mae Street Kidd is the Kentucky state legislator whose efforts resulted in Passage of a Law establishing an agency to finance low income housing in Kentucky.
MG Frederic E. Davidson on April 19th assumed command of the 8th Infantry Division in Germany and became the first Black to lead an Army Division.
Racial brawl on USS Kitty Hawk Anniversary Oct 12th. 46 Black and White sailors were injured in a racial fight on the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk while stationed off North Vietnam. The New York times stated "The Navy has had the reputation in the Black community of being a service in which Blacks are limited to stewards jobs." In 1971, the Navy had begun a five-year program to increase the numbers of Black recruits to match their 12 percent level in the general population.
The book "Why Blacks Kill Blacks" was written by Alvin Poussant.
Benjamin L. Hooks, lawyer and Baptist minister, becomes the first African American to be named to the Federal Communications Commission.
Muhammad Speaks, a contemporary black American newspaper, had the largest circulation.
Ishmeel Reed's first book of poetry was entitled "Conjure."
1973 Alice Walker wrote "In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women".
Coleman Young is elected the first African American mayor of Detroit, MI.
Paul Williams, an original member of the Temptations, committed suicide.
1974 Alberta King was fatally shot during church services at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. June 30.
Judge Garrity in Boston, Mass ordered desegregation of the citys schools.
Haile Selassie deposed.
Henry "Hammerin Hank" Aaron, baseball great and currently baseball executive, made baseball history when he broke Babe Ruths home run record, by hitting his 715th home run on April 8th. He led the National League I runs batted in four times and was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1982. A native of Mobile, AL, Aaron started pro baseball at 18. He joined the Braves in 1952 after they bought his contract from the Indianapolis Clowns of the Negro American League. He played for the Braves - in Milwaukee and Atlanta - for all but two seasons of his 23 year major league career and still holds more batting records than anyone in history.
1975 WGPR-TV the first television station operated by blacks, went on the air in Detroit.
Joseph W. Hatcher of Tallahassee, FL is sworn 9/2/75 as the states first African American Supreme Court Justice since reconstruction.
1976 Welterweight boxer Sugar Ray Leonard won the gold medal in boxing at the 1976 Olympics.
Soweto protests begin.
FESTAC 77 The Second world Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture in Lagos, Nigeria.
United Nations Day of Solidarity with South Africa designated Oct 11th. The membership of the United Nations observed a special day of solidarity with the numerous political prisoners that were being held in South Africa. A proclamation issued by a United Nations General Assembly Resolution (31/6C) of Nov 9, 1976, noted a call the "the immediate and unconditional release of all persons imprisoned or restricted for their involvement in the struggle for liberation in South Africa.
Black choreographer Alvin Alley won the Spingarn Medal.
Edwin Moses won the 400 meter hurdles at both the 1976 and 1984 Summer Olympics.
Novelist Frank Yerby wrote "A Rose For Ana Marie." Frank Yerby wrote the best seller entitled The Foxes of Harrow (1976).
1977 Confirmed on January 26, Andrew Young was named Ambassador to the United Nations by President Carter.
Clifford Alexander, Jr., Feb 11th, confirmed as first Black Secretary of the Army.
Roots, an adaptation of Alex Haleys best-selling novel, made television history on Jan 23rd. The show was viewed by more Americans than any other program since the invention of television. Some 130 million people watched at least part of the series. The final episode was reported to have attracted about 80 million viewers. Alex Haley spent 12 years researching and writing Roots, which became a best seller even before the television program. By Feb 20th , Roots was the number one selling book in the nation and had spent 20 weeks on the New York times best-seller list.
Black consciousness movement prompted by death of activist Stephen Bake.
1978 Raymond Andrews authored the 1978 novel Appalachee Red and was named the recipient of the first James Baldwin prize given in 1979 by the Dial Press.
USC vs. Bakke decision from Supreme Court upheld affirmative actions with limitations.
Cult leader Jim Jones and his mostly black followers committed mass suicide in Guyana.
Black athlete Reggie Jackson had a candy bar marketed in his name.
1979 Brazilian Black Movement led by Lelia deAlmeida Gonzales founded Unified Black Movement Against
Max Robinson becomes the first African American network news anchor when he appears on ABCs World News Tonight. 5/14/79.
Rosa L. Parks civil rights heroine was awarded a Spingarn Medal. She was the catalyst in the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-56, which led the way for the Civil Rights Movement.
1980 Ciceo Murphy was the only black ever to have competed for the world billiards championship.
Marvin Arrington elected City Council president.
All unemployed black Americans, in 1980, 70% never received unemployment insurance benefits.
Tony Brown organized the first annual Black College Day.
Daley Thompson was the black athlete from Great Britain that won the Decathlon in the 1980 and 1984 Olympics.
Upset with the policies of President Carter, two of many civil rights activists, Ralph Abernathy and Hosea Williams, endorsed the candidacy of Ronald Reagan for President.
Dr. Samuel C. Coleman at age 103, was honored as the oldest living Black veteran on Nov 10th. He enlisted in the Army on Sep 29, 1898. He served in San Juan, Puerto Rico following the Spanish-American War and was honorably discharged on Jun 29, 1899. After returning to civilian life, Dr. Coleman studied medicine at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, TN. He received his medical degree in 1903 and set up practice in the Arkansas communities of Pine Bluff, Hot Springs, Fordyce and Arkansas City. Shortly after his 100th birthday, Dr. Coleman retired from medical practice.
Toni Cade Bambara was the black woman that wrote the novel "The Salt Eaters."
William R. Tolber, Jr. was the president of Liberia when he was assassinated.
Larry Holmes defeated Muhammad Ali in his 1980 comeback.
1981 Zina Garrison was the black female who won the junior tennis title at the 1981 U.S. Open
Roy Wilkins died on Sep 8th. The civil rights activist was executive director of the NAACP from 1931 to 1977. Although diplomatic, he was a fierce crusader for racial integration and social justice through constitutional means. He fought the doctrine of Black separation and White supremacy alike. He was instrumental in the legal onslaught on school segregation that resulted in the 1954 Supreme Court decision outlawing "separate but equal" public schools. Mr. Wilkins was credited by many with being the man thrust behind the passage of the landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act, beginning with the drive for anti-lynching in the 1930s.
The U.S. Senate voted in favor of a bill that virtually eliminated bussing for the purpose of racial integration.
Lillian Roberts was appointed commissioner and became the first black woman to head the New York State Labor Department.
Marcus Allen won the Heisman Trophy.
Formerly the Superintendent of the Oakland, California school system, Dr. Ruth Love became the first black to serve in that position in Chicago.
1982 Charles Fuller is the author of the play "A Soldier's Play." Written for a Negro ensemble company, it won the 1982 Pulitzer Prize.
Roscoe Robinson, Jr., a veteran of the Korean and Vietnam wars, in 1982, became the first black Four-Star General in the U. S. Army.
1983 The U. S. Congress officially declared Martin Luther King, Jr.s Birthday a national legal holiday. President Ronald Reagan signs legislation designating the third Monday in January as MLK Day. The first national holiday honoring a non-government person and African American.
Jesse Jackson on Nov 3rd announces his candidacy for the office of president of the United States.
Barbara M. Watson, on Feb 17th, became the first Black and the first woman to serve as assistant secretary of state died at the age of 64 in Washington, D.C. She held that post from 1968 to 1974. She also served as administrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs from 1977 to 1980 and as U. S. ambassador to Malaysia from 1980 to 1981.
Vanessa Williams recording artist and actress on Sep 17th became the first Black woman crowned Miss America.
1984 Robert O. Goodman, Jr. was the U.S. Pilot whose release as a hostage in Syria was negotiated by Jesse Jackson in January,
The National Political Congress at Black women formed. Shirley Chisholm became chairperson of the National Politica1 Congress of black Women.
Daley Thompson was the black athlete from Great Britain that won the Decathlon in the 1984 Olympics.
John Hope Franklin was awarded America's most prestigious honor in education in 1984, The Jefferson Medal.
Paule Marshall won the 1984 American Book Award for her book, "Praisesong for the Widow." He was born April 9th, 1929.
The Jesse Owens 4 gold Olympic medals in the 1936 Olympics. record was only matched in the 1984 games in Los Angeles.
Fedco Food Corporation is the largest black-owned supermarket company in the U.S.
Valerie Brisco Hooks equaled Wilma Rodolph's 1960 feat by winning three gold medals at the1984 Olympics.
Evelyn Ashford won the gold medal in the women's 100 meters at the 1984 Summer Olympics.
Bishop Desmond Tutu, South African Archbishop, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role as unifying force in the campaign to resolve the problems of apartheid in South Africa. Bishop Tutu had been secretary general of the church council since 1978. Later, he became the first Black to hold that position. Although committed to nonviolent struggle for change in South Africa, he was also a supporter of the outlawed African National Congress. Bishop Tutu was widely regarded in the West as the most respected voice for Black nationalism in South Africa. The Nobel committee stated that the 1964 awards should be seen as a renewed recognition of the courage and heroism shown by Black South Africans in their use of peaceful methods in the struggle against Apartheid."
Paule Marshall won the 1984 American Book Award for her book, Praisesong for the Widow.
1985 The only fully black owned soft drink franchise is associated with the Seven-Up soft drink company.
Zaire was the world's leading producer of industrial diamonds.
Name two of the four black recipients of the Nobel peace prize as of 1985. (Martin Luther King, Ralph Bunche, Desmond Tutu, Albert Luthuli.)
Rob Beamon holds the world and Olympic long jump record of 8.90 meters.
There were 51 independent countries in Africa.
Libya is the country in North Africa that has the highest per capita income.
August Wilson wrote the prize-winning hit play, "Ma Rainey's Black Bottom.". Augusta Wilsons The Piano Lesson wins the Pulitzer Prize in drama (4/15/90) It is the second such prize for Wilson.
New York City had the largest black population.
The Ivory Coast in Africa is the leading producer of cocoa.
O.J. Simpson holds the NFL all time record for most 200-yard rushing games for a career.
William Brown, Jr. is the highest ranking general in the Air Force.
Twenty black players have been elected into the NFL Hall of Fame.
The Pointer Sisters won the American Music Award in 1985 as the favorite black group and video group.
1986 George Branham became the first Black to win a Professional Bowlers Association title on Nov 22nd.
James Baldwin, writer, was made a commander in Frances Legion of Honor.
Black physicist and astronaut Ronald McNair dies along with the rest of the crew of the Space shuttle Challenger when it explodes shortly after takeoff.
Over 400,000 African Americans serve in the United States Armed Forces.
1987 Kurt Schmoke is elected mayor of Baltimore, MD. He is the first African American to hold this office.
1988 S. B. Fuller, 83, president and founder of Fuller Products Co., died Oct 24th in Chicago. Mr. Fuller founded his cosmetics company in 1935 with $25 borrowed in his car. He had only a sixth-grade education, but became a millionaire by selling cosmetics door to door nationwide through a network of 5,000 salesmen and other employees. In the 1960s Fuller products peaked with sales of 10 million and sales offices in 38 states. Mr. Fullers company included newspapers, appliance outlets, and department stores, as well as farming and beef cattle production firms. Known as the dean of Black entrepreneurs, he spent time training other Black business people. One of his personal precepts was that a person could achieve financial independence through self-direction and hard work.
Debi Thomas, Feb 27th, become first African American to win Olympic medal in figure skating.
Lee Roy Young on 9/6/88 becomes the first African American Texas Ranger in the forces 165 year history.
Bill and Camille Cosby made Black educational history when they donated $20 million to Spelman College on Nov 4th. The historic gift was the largest of its kind from an individual. Also, no other person has ever contributed that much money to any Black college. In 1987, the Cosbys presented $1.3 million to Fisk University.
1989 Ronald Brown, Feb 10th, elected Democratic National Committee Chairperson. On Feb 10th, Black attorney and political leader became the first Black in United States History to head one of the countrys two largest political parties. Following the victory of Bill Clinton in the 1992 presidential election, Brown was appointed the nations first Black Secretary of Commerce. A native of Washington, D.C., Brown served with the National Urban League from 1968 to 1979 before beginning his political career. During that time he was promoted to the posts of deputy executive director and chief counsel.
Art shell becomes the first African American coach of a National Football League team. The University of Iowa was the first to name an African American to a varsity coaching position in the Big Ten conference.
1990 David Dinkins, Nov 7, elected mayor of New York City.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau there were 14.7 million African American men and 16.8 African American women in the United States.
The Watts Health Foundation is the largest community based health care system in the nation, reporting revenues of more than $100 million and serving over 80,000 residents in the greater Los Angeles area.
Gen. Marcelite J. Harris became the first African American woman to be promoted to the rank of brigadier general in the U.S. Air Force.
South African Nelson Mandela released from prison after serving 27 years without trial by the government, Feb 11th. Mandela, was leader of the African National Congress (ANC). Mandela had become one of the worlds most famous political prisoners, spending more than 27 years in jail. In June 1990, he embarked on a triumphant 13-nation world tour. During August 6 and 7, 1990, ANC leaders and South African government held talks denouncing the violence their factions, and the government suspended its four-year old state of emergency. Four year later, Nelson Mandela made history again by becoming the first Black president of South Africa. He won by an overwhelming victory, during a historic multi-racial election.
George Stallings is ordained as the first bishop of the African American Catholic Church. 5/15/90.
Earl Graves and Earvin "Magic" Johnson purchase the largest minority controlled Pepsi-Cola franchise in the United States, headquartered in Washington, D.C.
Sharon Pratt Kelly, Sep 11, elected mayor of the District of Columbia, becoming the first Black woman to lead a major American city.
1991 The Congressional Black Caucus, Nov 3, which included 16 new members in the 103rd Congress, swells to 40 members, the largest bloc of Black members of Congress in U. S. history.
Rev. Emmanuel Cleaver becomes the first African American mayor of Kansas City, MO.
1992 President Clinton appoints a record number of Blacks to his cabinet, Dec 21, including Commerce Secretary Ron Brown, Energy Secretary Hazel OLeary, Agriculture Secretary Mike Espy, Transportation Secretary Rodney Slater and Veterans Affairs Secretary Jesse Brown.
James M. Rodger, Jr. of Durham, NC was the first African American to be named Teacher of the Year.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture established a $2 million scholarship fund for students at seventeen historically black land-grant colleges.
There were approximately 350,000 African American businesses in the United States, making up 3 percent of the total business population.
The Black Inventors Museum was established in Los Angeles, CA by Valerie J. Robinson; the museums first financial donor was rap singer Ice Cube.
Carol Moseley Braun become the first African American woman to be elected to the United States Senate.
1993 Douglas C. Watson died May 29th. Aeronautical engineer who was among the first Black aeronautical engineers in the U.S. Mr. Watson spent 27 years with Fairchild Republic Aviation Corp. in Farmingdale, NY. He retired in 1978 as the companys chief of requirements and planning systems effectiveness. He helped develop the F-105 and F-84 jet fighters. But Mr. Watson considered his role in the design of the long-range P-47N, a bomber escort, to be his major contribution to aviation. He later served as president of the Sabre Research Corporation consulting engineers. He died at age 73 in Queens, NY.
Barbara Ross-Lee became the first African American woman to head a U.S. medical school - The Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, OH.
Archie Williams. Olympic gold medallist, died at his home in Fairfax, CA, on Jun 24th. He was78 years old, Williams gold-medal performance at the 1936 Berlin Olympics helped Black competitors upstage Hitlers hope of using the games to showcase Aryan athletes. In 1939, Williams graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California-Berkeley. Despite his engineering degree, professional limits placed on Blacks then forced Williams to dig ditches for a short time for the East Bay Municipal Utility District. After earning a pilots license, he trained pilots at Tuskegee (AL) Institute and in the army Air Corps for 22 years. He retired from the military as a lieutenant colonel. In 1981 he was interviewed by the Oakland Tribune. He made a very interesting comment on racism in America. He stated, "As I recall, when I came back home, people asked me, How did those dirty Nazis treat you? To which I always replied, "Well, over there at least we didnt have to ride in the back of the bus."
Of all African American students, 66 percent attended predominantly minority schools.
1994 Apartheid ended in South Africa.
1995 The Million Man March, led by minister Louis Farrakhan and Benjamin Chavis is held in Washington, D.C., for the empowerment of African American men.
1996 300 of the 8,200 (4% respectively) congressional staffers were African American
The Church of God in Christ, the fourth largest African American denomination in the United States contributes $68 billion annually to the gross national product.
Four of every five African Americans live in metropolitan areas
The Opportunities Industrialization Centers, founded by Leon Sullivan of Phoenix, AZ has provided job training for nearly 2 million African American men and women.
Of the 540,000 American troops who took part in Desert Storm 30% or 162,000 were African American.
Rite Dove was the nations youngest and first African American United States Poet Laureate.
Among all the U.S. Armed Forces, the U.S. Navy has proportionately the fewest African Americans.